Working With Schools And Communities Essay


Part 1: Intervention proposal
You are required to produce a detailed written account of the planning of the project, including negotiating access, liaising with the placement site, conducting an assessment, designing an appropriate intervention and completed ethics proposal with supplementary material?
Part 2: Record of intervention
You need to provide a detailed record of the implementation of the intervention, including materials used, and, where appropriate. You need to show evidence that you have completed the intervention, and give detailed records of what you did and how you did it?


Part 1: Intervention Proposal


The current proposal will be focusing on the preparing a detailed report regarding mindfulness based stress reduction. It is evident that many students leave the schools goes through stress which affects their future life and their families’ life too. Therefore, they are not able to concentrate on their study and enjoy their life besides studying (Dobkin, Hickman & Monshat, 2013). The educational institute and universities engage with the schools and universities that can help in reducing the stress level of the students so that they can have full concentration on career and attain higher grades in schools or colleges.

Definition of the Problem

There is substantial evidence that the stress is inherent in the life of the student which negatively influences their health. Moreover, it is known that stress can increase the depression and the people can get cut off from social life and can fall into solitary mode. Apart from that, stress can emerged out from job satisfaction, family pressure, study pressure, personal relationship, etc that can make a person to commit suicide (Dobkin, Irving & Amar, 2011). On the other hand, stress can also lead to higher burnout that can march to affect the emotional and physical centre of the person. Therefore, the current study will be highlighting to address the stress factor of the students through proposing Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction program so that students can control their stress level. Mindfulness is considered as meditation which unites the mind and body of the person (Gans, O’Sullivan & Bircheff, 2013). Therefore, developing a mindfulness based program will be effective for the students and concentrate highly on the studies and make their health and life beautiful.

Literature Review

The stresses among the students are majorly due to the pressure of study and completing assignments on time in order to receive higher grades in the examination. It is evident from study of Department of Kinesiology and Health which survey 249 college students and it provided that due to ineffective management of time, anxiety and incapable of meeting activities outside of colleges are major reason that lead to academic stress (Marchand, 2012). On the other hand, the survey of mtvU Associated Press in 2009 pointed that around 60% of the students are not able to complete their college work due to severe stress. Furthermore, The National Institute of Mental Health proposed that about 30% of the college students are in contact to depression which hampers their daily life and on the other hand, 64% leave the college due to mental health issues (Frank, Reibel, Broderick, Cantrell & Metz, 2013). Moreover, the National survey of College Counseling in 2012 represented that around 106 college students committed suicides and out of that number, one fifth conducted suicide due the issue of academic.

According to Song, Cho, Kim & Kim (2012), there are various theories that helps in reducing the stress and one such is Attention Restoration Theory which was formulated by Rachel and Stephen Kaplan. The particular theory makes the people to spend a quality time in nature that can help them to concentrate on the work. The natural environment eases out the tension and freshen up the mind of the people that helps them to have a control over their mind.

Apart from that, Dobkin, Hickman & Monshat (2013) mentioned that mindfulness based cognitive theory is effective in decreasing the stress level among the college students. Moreover, it can prevent the people from going into depression and can largely focus on their career and future growth. The mind and body are aligned by mindfulness activity as it is a kind of meditation which helps the person to come out of depression and lead a controlled life. The MBCT is also useful in case of anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder.

Description of the proposed intervention

The intervention that has been proposed is mindfulness based stress reduction to make the students aware and relay another way to the body sensations, feelings and thoughts. The MBSR can be effective in aligning together mindfulness yoga and meditation to help out the college students that may be suffering from chronic diseases or disorders. On the other hand, the MBSR can assist the students to employ a non-judging observation in context to their stimuli that may pass through their awareness field minute by minute (Dobkin, Irving & Amar, 2011). Therefore, the mindfulness practice can allow the students to forget past and not to fear about the future. The published research proposes that mindfulness interventions can play effective role in controlling stress, depression and nervousness. Apart from that, it is evident that MBSR has least adopted for the college students and counting on their stress. The MBSR would be helpful in reducing the overall distress relating to psychology and dropping down the stress. Therefore, the mindfulness approach can enhance awareness among students and can develop ability to remain away from any maladaptive patterns of intellect that can lead to stress (Gans, O’Sullivan & Bircheff, 2013). Moreover, as the mindfulness is a trait of mental training, therefore, it would help in increasing awareness relating to emotions, thoughts and stress responses via maladaptive ways. Therefore, it could be valuable for college students to cope with the level of stress in effective and much healthier way.

The steps that can be followed in relation to mindfulness based stress reduction invention can account of eight 2 hour session. Therefore, one session will be conducted every week and moreover, the students would be provided training by conducting below mentioned meditative practices:

Sitting Meditation:

Gerzel-Short & Wilkins (2009) argued that sitting meditation is one of the effective process that very much similar to care like the home as well as our self. Therefore, in order o take care the students in the school and colleges, sitting mediation will bring the full attention. On the other hand, sitting mediation is just like the healing. In this meditation, the student will be made to highly focus on their breath and pay complete attention to it as it will make students aware about their thoughts, emotions and body sensations. According to this practice, a progressive faction of attention across the body from toes to head to acknowledge any sensations that may occur in different section of the body. In order to reduce the mental stress and decrease the pressure over the students within the school and colleges, feet fall asleep or begin to hurt will be the best methodology of sitting. Rai et al. (2011) cited that sitting mediation is one of the effective step that take in-breath as well as out-breath. In the larger body, sitting mediation helps the students in feeling harmony. Sitting mediation also allows the people in moving their entire parts of the body smoothly and slowly that is an effective process of decreasing mental stress. Therefore, scanning the body can make the students to release them from any distress and get free from any, body pain that would result in stress. Therefore, the students can be able to release out their stress and students can have control over their mind if this meditation is continued at regular interval. Sitting mediation will help the students to link their mind and body and they can calm down their number of thoughts that would have in flowing in their mind. On the other hand, the sitting mediation can help in enhancing awareness among the college students to strengthen and balance their musculoskeletal system. The sitting mediation will be comprised of stretching and posturing the hand and body to get relief from body stress and make the mind and body to work in sound nature. This meditation will be concentrating on the body, breath and what is going in the current flash. Therefore, the students can get advantage to ease stress level.

This particular mediation can help students to form a higher compassion for teachers, friends, and other students and for themselves.

Breathing Observation

Thompson (2013) opined that complete breath considers the expiration, pause and inspiration for human being. Li & Wang (2013) cited that respiration allows the human in taking oxygen into the body as well as circulating all entire oxygen into all tissue with the help of blood. During this process, the circulation formula respiration collected the carbon dioxide from the tissue. The respiration rate in a normal human is 16 to 18 per minute. However, Rai et al. (2011) argued that respiration rate varies on the age such as women’s respiration rate slightly faster rather than the men. Apart from that, it has been also identified that respiration rate of kids is higher rather than adults. The respiration rate decrease during sleep or fatigued or rest. According to Kurosu (2013), normal respiration rate is comfortable, quite and regular. Gerzel-Short & Wilkins (2009) acknowledged that a person with heavy breathing can relief via turning slightly on their side. Apart from that, for breathing rhythmically as well as normally, need to open window. It may also assists the person to take normal breath. As argued by the Dobkin, Hickman & Monshat (2013), person with difficulties n breathing always found sitting up.

Problem Outcome

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness based stress reduction program, a survey can be conducted through interviewing with the college students that will provide true outcome of the program. Following are some survey questions that relates regarding identification of mental stress and stress reduction program –

1) Do you think lack of interest in a particular subject creates stress on you?

2) Do you feel anxious about your future?

3) How far you agree family economic status is the source of mental stress?

4) Is the de-attachment with family creates mental stress?

Therefore, the responses of the students will let know what necessary changes can be made in the program so that higher benefit can be provided to the students in controlling the stress level. On the other hand, there can be limitation that may be problem in evaluating the proposed program such as students may not be interested in providing response to the program. Moreover, if the expected number do not turn up for the program then it can be tough to find actual outcome of the program. Therefore, the students can be motivated by promoting program and its benefit to the students.

Ethical Considerations

In order to implement the mindfulness based stress reduction program, the proposer has to follow ethical code of conduct so that benefits of the program can be delivered to the students. The consent from the students has to be sought to attend the program and they students should not be forced as it can be completely unethical means. On the other hand, the programs should include meditation that really evolves and any sexual meditation should not be implemented in the program.


From the entire intervention study, it can be concluded that mindfulness based stress reduction program can be useful for the students to seek higher benefit that they may face relating to distress, stress, depression or any other disorders. The stress normally associated with the mind that makes the person to behave differently. Therefore, the meditation training can help in controlling the fluctuation of thoughts and they can make more decisions for their life. The stress problem among the students is a serious matter that makes them to commit suicide and thus if students adopt mediation then they can release them from stress boundary and lead a healthy life. On the other hand, the study mentioned different mindfulness strategy that can be adopted in the program that can largely help the college students to get relief from depression and stress.

Part 2: Record of Intervention

Clear evidence of record of intervention

Whenever the physical intervention occurred, the forms at the back of this book must be completed. According to the guidance of Gerzel-Short & Wilkins (2009), in the schools and communities there were several circumstances that forces intentionally to the member of staffs to restrict a child and their movement against his or her willingness. In order to record the intervention, one form must be completed by the members of staffs that involved with the operational process of schools and communities in terms of any possibility and any event within 24 hours. There are several intervention policies such as Hampshire Restrictive Physical Intervention that advised for reviewing the incidents of intervention of the child within the establishment. Apart from that, Kurosu (2013) argued best possible practice allows the people in recording intervention of child monthly basis. On the other hand, Rai et al. (2011) stated that detail guidance helps in designating he member of staff and governor of school who are responsible for the review. In according to Li & Wang (2013), member of staffs are responsible for generating the safeguarding as well as it is very much important in terms of resolving issues of the students and the confidentiality of staffs. This helps in considering intervention of child within the process.

In order to record the intervention of child, need to involve more members of staffs and governor in the school. Apart from that, Thompson (2013) argued setting of events such as areas of schools, social setting, lessons setting, times of days, etc allows the member of staffs in keeping record of intervention. Moreover, Kurosu (2013) opined that hypothesis the various functions of the incidents is also an effective and efficient materials of keeping record. As argued by Gerzel-Short & Wilkins (2009), need to involve more staffs in physical intervention in terms of recording intervention of Childs. Moreover, for record of intervention properly need to use various types of injuries of the victims.

Demonstration of personal contribution to the delivery of the intervention

In order to deliver of the intervention, members of staffs in the school has to provides several personal contribution such as understand the long, medium and short term consequence based on the behavior that related to health and others. Apart from that, staffs in the school has to feel positive regarding the benefits as well as limitation of enhancing health behaviors as well as the changing of health behavior. In order to make easy steps over time, staffs of the schools have to plan according to changes for delivers of the intervention. The most important method that required to delivers of the intervention is making of personal commitment. It helps in adopting health enhancing behavior of the children through setting up the specific goals via undertaking clear definition of behaviors. Rai et al. (2011) acknowledged that members of staffs in the school have to recognize the context of societal in terms of making effective relationship of the behavior of children. Moreover, members of staffs have to plan for the situation that may undermine the changes. In terms of preventing the relapse, need to implement the coping strategies for explicating the plan. Apart from that, staffs in the schools have to develop and promote the parental skills and knowledge in terms of enhancing relationship between the children and their own career. Improvement of self-efficiency is also an effective method for delivering of the intervention. Maintain and development of nurturing and supportive social network also helps in delivering the interventions in the schools and communities in United Kingdom. Building personal skills and promoting resilience, member of staffs in the schools and communities in United Kingdom is able to help in developing relationship and promoting the positive social networks.

Evidence of the use of theoretical and research driven knowledge in the implementation of the intervention

There are several steps that are the evidence of theoretical and research driven knowledge in the implementation of the intervention. These are –

Identification of resources that may helps in successful implementation: It helps in representing clear evidence as well as accessible guidance that constitute strong evidence on the effectiveness of intervention. Kurosu (2013) suggested that social program that assists in producing coalition for the policy of evidence based. It is also helps in summarizing the findings in terms of randomized the controlled trials. Blueprint for the violent prevention is also an effective national violence that identifies the interventions and evaluated via the randomized control trials.

Identification of appropriate implementation site: Several characteristics that critically important to the intervention I terms of producing positive effects such as top level official at the site, string proponent of the intervention, support and enthusiasm for the intervention, sufficient financial commitment and other resources for the intervention, etc.

Identification the key features of intervention: Staffing and training is the ideal features f successful intervention in the schools and communities. Apart from that training to the program delivery staffs is also important as well as the key features of successful intervention. Content of intervention such as activities, lessons, sessions, etc are the tutoring intervention that seeks to implement an evidence based reading in the schools. Program delivery such as setting of goals, locations, duration of interventions, length of sessions, etc are integral part in implementing of the intervention.

Application of professional skills in execution of the intervention

Intervention is an effective method in the schools and communities within the region of United Kingdom. Therefore, staffs of the schools have to apply their professional skills in execution of the intervention properly. Following are the application that needs to apply for executing intervention –

Social science method: It has been seen that development intervention depends on the complex interaction of institution and multiple stakeholders.

Cost benefits analysis: This is an important professional skill during the decision making of allocating best resources during the limited resources. Cost benefit analysis skill helps in estimating the costs along with consequences into the different programs and provide the value for money.

Evidence based decision-making: Evaluation expert have to design as well as implement the evaluation studies during the programme of offering to managers. It is feasible and very much effective in terms of making decision as well as shows interprets and commissions evaluations. Li & Wang (2013) argued that synthesizing the evidence that pulls subject in terms of making decision that is most useful and summarized evidence as well as planning for the new studies.

Design, measurement and statistical method: Careful analysis and better understanding about the programme that achieved desire impact is the scientific methods. This helps in measuring the issues as well as effectiveness in intervention.

Evidence of the evaluation of the intervention

The target audiences for evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention are the policy makers, service providers, practitioners, commissioners, etc that has potential impact in the health related behavior. In order to evaluate the effectiveness, members of staffs of the schools and communities has to ensure the project plans and funding applications for the new programmes and interventions including specific provision especially for the monitoring and evaluations. Moreover, staffs also ensure the possibilities of several elements of behavioral change interventions such as acceptability, safety, effectiveness, equity, feasibility, etc. Apart from that, in order to support the evidence of evaluation of the intervention, need to collect data for the cost-effectiveness analysis including the measurement of life. Moreover, compare the efficiency and effectiveness of programmes and interventions that deliver to the different population groups such as high-income groups versus low-income groups, younger versus older people, men versus women, etc. On the other hand, Rai et al. (2011) acknowledged that the comparison of the effectiveness of costs for the prevention of primary care as well as clinical treatment for behavior related issues. Estimated costs saving is also an part of evaluating and researching the intervention and programmes regarding behavioral changes.

Consistent engagement with the ethical codes at all stages of the intervention

At the all stages of intervention, need to involve various ethical code of conduct as well as engage it in terms of standardize the process. According to Li & Wang (2013) , the health care organization in the communities has to maintain the DH standard for the public health in terms of providing better health care service to the domain. Moreover, organizations or the communities have to check regularly about their score of heath care service. Apart from that, need to involve the health and social care standard, local actions, national standard of government that meet the organization’s local authorities. Furthermore, organizations in the national and local authorities have to meet the indicators of government as well as improve the service of health care through reducing inequalities Thompson (2013). The most important method that has to consider the local and national organization in United Kingdom in communities is focusing of building children’s trusts. Wellbeing and health care partnership allows the organization in working properly within the local strategic partnership. Costing statement and highlighting of slides are the key tools of development that helps organization in implementing the guidance.


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