What is computer networking?
According to Sunshine (2018), Computer networking, as we know it today may be said to have develop its start with the ARPANET expansion in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Prior to that time there were computer vendor “networks” designed primarily to connect terminals and remote job entry stations to a mainframe. But the notion of networking between computers viewing each other as equal peers to achieve “resource sharing” was important to the arpanet design. Computer network is defined to be a set of autonomous, independent computer systems, interconnected so as to permit communicating resource sharing between any pair of systems. A computer network contains of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other(Vfu.bg, 2018).Data exchangeData exchange is the procedure of taking data organized under a source schema and transforming it into data structured under a target schema, so that the target data is an accurate representation of the source data. Data interchange allows data to be shared between different computer programs.
Types of data exchange are:·Google search query· Netflix video· Email· Skype· EBay· Make phone call with viber· Upload a file to drop box or one Drive· Direct a file to the printer for printing.Wire sharkWireshark is a web protocol analyzer. It lets you capture and interactively browse the traffic running on a computer network. It has a ironic and powerful feature set and is world’s most popular tool of its kind. It runs on maximum computing platforms including Windows, macOS, Linux, and UNIX. Network professionals, security experts, developers, and educators around the world use it frequently(“Wireshark”, 2018).Virtualization toolsVirtualization is the process of making a software-based, or virtual, representation of something, such as virtual applications, servers, storage and networks.Number systemThe method to signify and work with numbers is called number system. Decimal number system is the most common number system. Other widespread number systems include binary number system, octal number system, hexadecimal number system, etc.Decimal Number SystemDecimal number system is a base 10 number system having 10 digits from 0 to 9. This means that any numerical quantity can be represented using these 10 digits. Decimal number system is also a positional value systemBinary Number SystemThe simplest way to vary commands through electric signals is two-state system – on and off. On is represented as 1 and off as 0, though 0 is not actually no signal but signal at a lower voltage.
The number system having just these two digits – 0 and 1 – is called binary number system.Octal Number SystemOctal number system has eight digits – 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. Octal number system is also a positional utility system with where each digit has its value expressed in powers of 8Hexadecimal Number SystemIn networking hexadecimal is old frequently, particularly for representing large numbers.The valid digits in hexadecimal are 0,1,2…9,A, B, C, D, E, F.Packet switchesIn the early 1960s, American computer scientist Paul Baran established the concept Distributed Adaptive Message Block Switching with the goal to provide a fault-tolerant, efficient routing method for telecommunication messages as measure of a research program at the RAND Corporation, funded by the US Department of Defense (“Packet switching”, 2018). Packet switching is a way of combination data, which is transmitted over a digital network into packets. Packets are made of a header and a payload. Data in the header is used by networking hardware to direct the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software. Packet switching is the main basis for data communications in computer networks worldwide.Circuit switching VS packet switching networksCircuit switching and packet switching are the two switching approaches that are used to attach the multiple communicating devices with one another. Circuit Switching was particularly designed for voice communication and it was fewer suitable for data transmission. So, a well solution evolved for data transmission called Packet switching. The main difference between circuit switching and packet switching is that Circuit Switching is connection oriented whereas, Packet Switching is connection less.LinuxAccording to Tawrym and lengkapku (2018) Linux was originally grown for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has later been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Linux is the best-known furthermore most-used open source operating system.
As an operating system, Linux is software that sits foundation all of the other software on a computer, receiving requests from those programs and relaying these requests to the computer’s hardware.Application layerAn application layer is an abstraction layer that requires the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the OSI model. Although together models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the complete definitions and purposes are different.Application layer is the upper most layer of TCP/IP Model that provides the interface amongst the applications and network.The functions of application layer are given below:1. Application layer is used interchange messages.2. It provides access for global information about various services.3. It helps us to access files and manages it.Application architectures including:· Client/Server· Peer to peer· Host based· Cloud architecturesClient/serverThe client–server model is a distributed application arrangement that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients. (“Oracle Developer Studio”, 2018)Peer to peerPeer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a purpose architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. Peers are equally privileged, equipotent participants in the application. They are said to form a peer-to-peer network of nodes.Host based·
The first application architecture to be established was the host-based.· The ‘server’ in host-based architectures, frequently a mainframe, performs all four-application program functions.· The client, usually a terminal or a PC running a terminal emulation database captures key strokes which are sent to the mainframe and displays information according to the server’s instructions.Cloud computing architecture denotes to the mechanisms and subcomponents required for cloud computing. These components typically consist of a front-end platform (fat client, thin client, mobile device), back end platforms (servers, storage), a cloud based delivery, and a network (Internet, Intranet, Intercloud). Combined, these components make up cloud computing architecture.Network protocolsNetwork protocols incorporate all the procedures, requirements and constraints of initiating and accomplishing communication between computers, servers, routers and other network-enabled devices. Network protocols must be confirmed and fit by the sender and receiver to confirm network/data communication and apply to software and hardware nodes that communicate on a network.There are numerous broad kinds of networking protocols, including:·
Network communication protocols: Basic data communication protocols, such as TCP/IP and HTTP.· Network security protocols: Implement security over network communications and include HTTPS, SSL and SFTP.· Network management protocols: Provide network governance and maintenance and include SNMP and ICMP.Network protocolsNetwork protocols are official standards and policies comprised of rules, actions and formats that describe communication between two or more devices over a network. Network protocols govern the end-to-end processes of opportune, secure and managed data or network communication.Application layerAn application layer is an abstraction layer that agrees the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in together of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the OSI model.Data-Link layerThe data link layer is the protocol layer in a database that switches the moving of data into and out of a physical link in a network. The data link layer is Layer 2 in the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) architecture model for a set of telecommunication protocols. Data bits are encoded, decoded and organized in the data link layer, before they are transported as frames between two adjacent nodes on the same LAN or WAN. The data link layer also determines how devices recover from collisions that may occur when nodes attempt to send frames at the same time. (“Margaret Rouse – TechTarget, WhatIs.com”, 2018)
Functions of the data link layerThe data link layer has three main functions:· It handles problems that occur as a result of bit transmission errors.· It ensures data flows at a pace that doesn’t overwhelm sending and receiving devices.· It permits the transmission of data to Layer 3, the network layer, where it is addressed and routed.Network interface cardA computer uses a network interface card (NIC) to become segment of a network. The NIC contains the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a wired connection (e.g., Ethernet) or a wireless connection (e.g., Wi-Fi). A network interface card is also recognized as a network interface controller, network adapter, or Local Area Network (LAN) adapter.For any computer, a network interface card (NIC) performs two crucial tasks.Establishes and manages the computer’s network connectionTranslates digital computer data into signals (appropriate for the networking medium) for outgoing messages, and translates signals into digital computer data for incoming messagesHow to find the IP number and MAC address of a network card1. Click the Run button in the Windows Start Menu.2. Type cmd in the Open prompt of the Run menu and click OK to launch acommand prompt window.3. Type ipconfig /all at the command prompt to check the network card settings.4. The IP number and MAC address are listed by ipconfig under IP Address and Physical Address.5. You can copy the Physical Address and IP Address from the command prompt by right clicking in the command prompt and clicking Mark. Then select the text you want to copy with the mouse and hit the enter key.Determine the MAC address on a linux system.·As the root user (or user with appropriate permissions)· Type “ifconfig -a”· From the displayed information, find eth0 (this is the default first Ethernet adapter)· Locate the number next to the HWaddr. This is your MAC addressThe MAC Address will be displayed in the form of 00:08:C7:1B:8C:02.Example “ifconfig -a” output: eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:08:C7:1B:8C:02 inet addr:192.168.111.20 Bcast:192.168.111.255 Mask:255.255.255.0