Variation Orders In Highway Project Essay


Discuss about Variation Orders In Highway Project In Sultanate Of Oman.



Oman is a GCC country that has been part of a high growth especially in the construction sector plus a fast growth in the population. There is large group of young people coming in hence higher demand usually for housing plus other building start-ups at Muscat the capital city bringing in a tourism appeal, there are other construction sectors involving the industrial plus the transport at Sohar, Salalah plus Duqm sites also are the development of seaports and airports, the utilities, does do reconstruct the governmental buildings, some of the landmarks projects. As the saying goes where there are advantages, there are disadvantages too hence the construction project at Oman does do have its challenges (Ramady, 2014).

The variations that are usually issued that is during construction happens to be time-consuming plus are also costly hence being causes of disruption, of delay, of disputes plus does do generate a cost effect and this gets worse for there is no method available for controlling this. The contracting that is performed in Oman is connected to the construction-type projects instead of the services together with the supplies contracts. Often some changes do occur that is during contract execution usually regarding the scope changes, some of the variations that are in quantities, the changes that are in design, the extension of time plus the unit rate changes. The Oman’s most used standard construction contract is The Standard Documents for Building & Civil Engineering (Choi, 2004).

The article 51 usually entitled Alterations, the additions plus the omissions, gives that variations that is to the original area usually of works are often permissible as; Engineer must make variations of the quality or rather the quantity of Works or rather any area approved by the Employer hence order the Contractor to acting by; raising or rather lowering the amount of any task , to making a difference in the trait or rather the quality, to omitting any job, to making a difference in the levels, the lines set themselves together with the dimensions and finally to running the added work.

Some more issues will most certainly arise as a consequence of any variations to the original scope of works. Such issues will likely manifest in both lump-sum and cost-reimbursement contracts and will need to be quickly redressed to circumvent any future disputes. Some common problems that will likely arise include reimbursement for supplies in which the contractor had previously purchased in anticipation for individual works; future modifications to monthly payment terms and interim certificates; time extensions as they relate to variation claims; the amount of retention money; and adjustments to the original contract value (Sanderson, 2006).

What to find out when assessing the differences usually in this construction projects is one the causes of variations, their impact that is on the project, the identifying of the beneficial groups. The tasks included the presentation of actual case studies and preparation of a questionnaire. The causes of variations are requesting for extra job or rather changes because of new findings plus some other considerations, the owner making some requests for modification of work, unclearly of scope requirements at design stage, the failure to making decisions when required, the non-availability that is of the field construction site engineers , a poor communication that is in between the relevant governmental units plus the owner, the non-availability usually of the previous completed project records, the failing to giving the right information to tender documents, the non-anticipation of the design’s natural growth, design periods that are usually not realistic, the scarcity of the engineering registration that is for the engineers in Oman so as to ensuring excellent consultancy services is well maintained, the shortage of usually of the whole project planning, the building schedule is not real including the conditions often for building are old plus usually do not match the activities of development already present.

So as to determine the impacts of variation construction in Oman they had to one, delay the completion date, the cost had to overruns, the contractors had to incur other expenses, the claims plus disputes then the owner, the designer/consultant, the contractor did get advantaged that is from the giving of the variations that is to the contract (Chartered Institute of building Great Britain, 2014)

The recommendations is by the setting of activities so as to minimize the changes in building in Oman such as a standard document usually should be developed so as to develop the stages from the start of the project till end, while a permanent standard document should be designed so as to covering all the construction regulations then permitting the required that is for projects usually built in Oman, a quantity surveyor together with the project manager should work with large built projects plus a conventional learning database system should be constructed and distributed among the governmental units, the technical committee establishment so as to reviewing the overall plan and finally reviewing of the registration that is the consulting companies plus allowing the design engineer to practice without professional license.


There are the economic problems that are the additional cost and the incremental time. There are the capacity or rather the professional challenges such as the insufficiency of knowledge that is on green technologies together with material, the limited availability that is the green suppliers plus the information, limitation of quantitative evaluation tools, insufficiency of the construction codes plus the changes plus the limitation of professional capacity (Konar, 2011).

There are the societal challenges too that do include the inadequacy of the political incentives, the refusal to change the traditional building processes and the limitation of public awareness.

The technological issues are like the lack of sustainable technologies workability, the misunderstanding of the technical activities plus the restriction of enough green technological specifications.

Parties in projects in Oman are the project owner or maker, the employer’s engineering, the architectural and other consultants, the employer’s contractor, the contractor’s subcontractors plus the suppliers (Konar, 2011).

The Delay Causes In Construction Plans

According to Keane & Caletka, (2015) the design delays, the changes possible in the initial layout, the complexity, the construction delay, the variations plus the claims, the change of scope, the financial ability, the insufficiency of funds, the unavailability of the management team, unspecialized subcontractors, limitation of project management, restriction of experience of the consultant, inadequacy of knowledge of that is by the contractors

Literature Review

The construction of office complex


Staying within a reasonable budget, development of the car parks meant for the staffs plus the public users, the building of a multi-storey building so as to accommodate 750 workers, the providence of comfortable plus a fast communication together with IT services that is for the public, the maintenance of security service there and the construction of the consensus in between the requirements plus the minor essentials (Orstavik, Dainty & Abbott, 2015).

There are some of the criteria that are desired like the materials selected that is to a high standard, construction of external view that is to be Oman's building styles, design fitting traits widening and private service roads to be as per Royal Oman Police standards plus the classifications.

The construction of Container Terminal


The building of a container terminal, building of breakwater system, giving a comfortable plus a fast services for usually the vessels, bringing up of the existing services, the construction of berths so as increasing the terminal cargo capacity, being within a reasonable budget, the making of consensus that is in between the already there services plus the services that are in the list of requirement.

The construction of road


The building of 6 km of internal road network for the purpose of connecting the internal central blocks plus the expressway highway, the substantial earthworks, the construction of the roundabouts, the guard rails, the traffic signs, the installing of the street lighting that is for six km road length plus the ticking done on the roads, the building of Ripraps that is along the path slopes, fixing of pipes plus the box culverts plus the construction of parking areas together with the substations of the power so as to offering power of the road services

The Fast Ferry Service Project

Involves the building of the fast ferry service equipment usually at the north area of Oman with the activities there being the construction of berthing facilities, of bridges that are linked, of the pontoons, of the mooring piles, of the building of water plus the sewage networks, the construction of custom plus the immigrant buildings, rearrangement of wastewater. The stages involved feasibility stage, the concept plus design stage, the young stages plus the building plus the maintenance stage (Rickman, 2008).

Others Case Studies

Khalid 2012, an MSc. Thesis was done for taking controls of the variation orders usually in water plus the wastewater projects in Jordan with the main effect being conflict in between the contact forms, the mistakes plus those left out in the design, to unforeseen issues, to the project place conditions differences, to the insufficiency model , to the differences that is in specifications, in the inadequate working drawings, the change that is in design that is by consultant, effects of the variation orders be completion time plan delay, more of project cost , more in the overhead cost, more payments for procurement delay plus the contractors.

Priyantha et al., (2011) shown that the highways aids in the economic growth of the upcoming countries. Variations here is one of the issues that does do arise because of unclear scopes that is of the tasks defined at the beginning. Its primary objective was for recognizing, the causes plus the impacts that are of variations usually in highways construction.

Lanka which was just a survey, a questionnaire survey targeting on finding out the causes of variations plus the semi-structured interviews carried out with getting data about nature plus the impacts of the changes. The outcome was the change in demand does do rise plus the mind power being reasons for an owner with the faults together with the layout differences in Bill of Quantities being for consultant originated variations (Woolley, 2001).

Ming Sun (2009) let the cat out of the bag that on many building projects, the regular differences did land into cost overruns, to time delays, to quality faults. To fill the knowledge gap then reviewing plus synthesizing the already literature that is on project difference did causes plus the impacts, the coming up of two taxonomies for difference causes plus the difference effects and finally the illustration of how the taxonomies were being used.

Arain and Peng (2005), explained on the coming up of the Knowledge Based Decision Support System (KBDSS) meant for management that is of variation orders for the institutional buildings that are in Singapore. KBDSS got two primary parts, a knowledgebase matched with the decision support shell that is for choosing the appropriate controls. So as to come up with the database then the accumulation of information that is from usually the source documents of 79 institutional construction projects, the questionnaire survey, the literature review. KBDSS does do exhibits their pertinent details plus as variations, the assortment of filtered knowledge.

Sambasivan & Soon (2005) said that the problem of delays usually within the construction industry is a worldwide phenomenon with the construction industry in Malaysia being included. The important objective is to finding out the delay variables effect that is on the job conclusion. According to the study were the following factors causing delay, the contractor’s improper preparation, the contractor's site mismanagement, insufficiency of the contractor expertise, the inadequacy of the owner's financing plus the payments that is for the finished work, the challenges that is with subcontractors plus an empirical relationship in between each cause plus impact.

A. Koushki et al., (2005) carried out the delays plus cost rise usually in the construction that is of private residential projects that are in Kuwait, in the time-delays plus the cost increases often associated with the construction of private housing projects that is in the State of Kuwait were determined.

Major projects

Sakhel, Geissen, & Vogelpohl, (2017) Oman Convention & Exhibition Centre is one of the projects that accumulated US$1 billion, with the approximation end date being in 2016. Two was the Sohar Airport costing US$500 million, with an estimate end date being 2014. Three is the Salalah Port expansion that cost was US$450 million. Four was the Oman’s national rail network whose value is not defined till now, but the targeted end date is 2018. Five is the Duqm city, the drydocks plus the refinery whose cost is US$20 billion. Six is the Ghubrah Independent Water Project whose cost is US$380 million with the end date approximation being 2014. Seven is the Batinah Expressway whose cost is US$2.59 billion. Eight is the Muscat & Salalah International Airport expansion whose cost is US$5.2 billion and finally is the Salalah Medical City with a cost of US$1 billion.


The source of the data that was required was collected from the clients plus the consultants‘records to show each activity carried out. The forms of data collection were usually designed by authors so as to unify the data collection that is for all delay. The indices for delay used for comparison involved the percentage of delay, the percentage of delay plus the average delay rate (Biddle & Emmett, 2013)

The secondary sources were the most used ones. I have studied the plans for the Oman construction from the booklets, the publications issued by this Ministry of development time to time about the topic plus from books, from newspapers, from magazine together with the internet. Also a good review on thirty-eight public building projects usually on non-similar project kinds together with the sizes that is plus the residential, the offices plus the infrastructure and the service projects with the aim of investigating the cost overrun status (Hamilton, 2005).


Construction is a labor-intensive industry making labor productivity to remain the industry's predominant identifier of performance. Amongst the biggest challenges facing the construction sector in the Sultanate of Oman is usually the low labor productivity hence if identification, exploration plus the ranking making is the goal.

Issues that are caused by the delay usually incompletion that is of construction projects generally in Oman got to be diagnosed and assessed hence to conclusion that; the delay in building the projects in Oman between the 2007-2009 is greater than 40 percent that is usually the planned time, and according to this percentage it shows a high rate. The owners minding about the delay generally in the construction projects does do build up capabilities of studying their plans in each given stage. The maximum delay between 2007-2009 was found to be 300 per cent hence need for studying the planning plus the efficiency of the right building forums.


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