Variable Analysis: Quantitative Study Essay


Discuss about the Variable Analysis for Quantitative Study.



This journal aims at identifying the variables used by Zhang and Oczkowski, (2016) in their study “Exploring the potential effects of expatriate adjustment direction”. Identification and the role of the variables used in this quantitative study shall be discussed in this journal. The journal talks about the increasing pattern of cross culture among the different nations and different national boundaries. The author has undertaken the research to evaluate the flow of direction of cultural intelligence.

Different Variables and their Definitions:

Dependent Variable:

The dependent variable is the cross-cultural adjustment (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). It is the psychological factor that is commonly known as cultural shock. It is the process of characterizing certain symptoms that represents certain kind of behavior in an individual (Li et al., 2013). This is the dependent variable because it is the characteristic of an individual and it completely dependent of other factors.

Independent Variable:

The independent variable of this study is cultural intelligence (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). Cultural intelligence has been defined as the capability of an individual to relate and work effectively in a cross cultural environment (Erez et al., 2013). It has been considered as the independent variable because the capability of a person might not vary depending on various situations and the experiences that the individual has in his life.

Intervening Variable:

The intervention or the intermediate variable used in the study is Adjustment direction (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). Adjustment direction is the capability of an individual to adjust with various cultural dimensions and the ability of the person to cope with the situation. This is indeed the intermediary factor that connects the cultural intelligence with the cross-cultural adjustment.

Motivation of Including these Variables in the Conceptual Framework of the Study:

The conceptual framework is designed to get a overview of the complete research study and the theories and concepts that are to be used in the study. The idea of including the variables in the conceptual map is to create an overview of the factors that are directly related to the concept of research topic taken into consideration (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). The idea is that when a reader reads the journal, the person gets an overview of the concepts and theories used in the overall discussion of the study. This is the reason the variables are often included in the framework and create motivation among the researchers to utilize the same in drawing better conclusion to the research paper.

Measuring the Variables:

The dependent variable cross-cultural adjustment has been represented by two sub-constructs SCA and PCA. In this case, SCA was measured using the Black and Stephens’s 14-item scale formula. PCA the 12-item general health scale has been applied to monitor the different levels of well-being of the employees in organizational contexts (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). The variables have been measured by the means of a sample group in Australia and focus had been made on the power distance and examining its effect on cultural intelligence and the cross cultural adjustment. A significant relationship between the cognitive behavioral cultural intelligence and the major decision making and responsibility has been measured. Secondly, the undergraduate students who are responsible to get involved in the various culturally different groups were also involved in the variable measurement process (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016).

Scope of other Important Variables to be Include:

There have been some other variables as well that have been included in the study. These are age, gender, profession that can also affect the culture and the ability of a person to be a part of the different culture. Of these, profession and experience of being with other cultures can be considered as the most important factors that can be included in the research. This way the finding of the research would have been more fruitful and more prominent towards the objectives of the study. If these variables are used in the research, the outcome would be more comprehensive and more reliable as these are the factors that practically affect the life of an individual.


The journal has discussed about the different variables used in the study and how effectively the variables have shaped the complete research. The researcher has undertaken an empirical research to carry out the analysis of the various variables used in the study. It has also been understood that the framework of the research is designed with all the variables to create a better understanding of the overall approach undertaken in the study.


Erez, M., Lisak, A., Harush, R., Glikson, E., Nouri, R., & Shokef, E. (2013). Going global: Developing management students' cultural intelligence and global identity in culturally diverse virtual teams. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(3), 330-355.

Li, M., Mobley, W. H., & Kelly, A. (2013). When do global leaders learn best to develop cultural intelligence? An investigation of the moderating role of experiential learning style. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 12(1), 32-50.

Zhang, Y., & Oczkowski, E. (2016). Exploring the potential effects of expatriate adjustment direction. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1), 158-183.

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