During the transfer of data within the network the data packets first conduct upward and downward movement before being actually transferred via the network. The data packets in the sender are generated in the application layer. Some header files are added to the data packets before being transported to the other layers. This is known as data encapsulation. The data is encapsulated and finally transferred to the network layer where the data is transferred from one machine to another.
The recipient receives the encapsulated data packet from the sender and performs the decapsulation process to retrieve the original data. As the data packet is transferred to the application layer from the network layer the header files are removed from the front of the data packet. This is known as decapsulation process.
The encapsulation and the decapsulation techniques for transfer of the data packets in the network are different from the maultiplexing and the demultiplexing techniques. The demultiplexing and the multiplexing are involved generally with the simplification of the complex data signals. In addition to this, the encapsulation and the decapsulation techniques are basically related with the security of the data.
Given, B= 6.8 MHz (bandwidth)
SNR= 132 (signal to noise ratio)
C= Bit Rate.
C=B log (1+SNR) = 6.8x106 log2 (1+132) = 6.8x106 log2 133 = 48 Mbps.
Let, L be the number of signals
Therefore, C = 2 x B x log2 (L)
0r, 48= 2x6.8xlog2L
Or, log2 L=48/(6.8x2)
Or, log2 L= 3.56 0r 4 (approx)
Or, L = 24= 16.
The number of layers in the OSI network model are more than the number of layers in the TCP/IP network models. Hence, the OSI network model provides better functionality and a greater number of options than the TCP/IP network model. Theoretically the OSI network model is much better than the TCP/IP and provides better authentication and security procedure for the network.
Although the OSI network model provides better options than the TCP/IP network model but the practical application of the model is very difficult and hence, the TCP/IP model is selected as the more suitable option as the practical application of the TCP/IP model is more suitable.
The main advantage of the OSI model is that provides more options in the network and the functionality of the network is also more than the other models. The main disadvantage is that the model is very difficult to implement.
The main advantage of the TCP/IP model is that it is very easy to implement. But the main disadvantage is that it is slower than the other models and also it provides inefficient security.
Answer to question 5
Given, frame size (F)= 5 million bits
Propagation speed = 2.2x 108 m/s
Length of the link = 1900 km = 1900 x 103
Transmission time = 5 x 106 /8 mS = 62500 =.625 s
Bandwidth = 8 x 106 bps
Propagation time = 1900 x 103 / 2.2x 108 uS = 8 uS
Queuing time= 10 x 3.5 mS = 35 mS.
Processing delay = 1.8 x 10 mS = 18 mS.
Total delay time = 35 + 18 + .08 + 62500 = 62551.08 mS = .63 sec
The total delay time is .63 sec and the dominant component is the transmission delay and the negligible component is the propagation time.
Authorization: The Authorization of the established connection is done.
Transaction: The transactions in the authorized connection are performed.
Update: The transactions are updated.
Closed: The POP 3 is closed after updating all the transactions.
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