Unique evolution in Internet of things
Mrs.J.RAJALAKSHMI , M.E.",(Ph.D.",)
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering",
Nadar Saraswathi College of Engineering & Technology",Theni",
Dr.S.SIVARANJANAI , M.E.",Ph.D.",
Department of Information Technology",
Sethu Institute of Technology – Kariapatti
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering",
Nadar Saraswathi College of Engineering & Technology",Theni",
IoT introduces a diverse range of applications. Unique development in networking standards that gap among the physical world and the cyber or visual one is the Internet of Things. The smart objects communicate with each other, data are congregated and certain desires of users are pleased by different queried data. IoT has many attention in agriculture, smart cities, health care, traffic monitoring, transport and logistics, transformer monitoring etc. .",.This is a growing mega trend let here survey how it will influence everything from businesses our daily personal lives.
Keywords- IoT, Technologies ",Communication, Applications, Challenges.
IoT is a system of connected physical objects that are accessible through the internet. The ‘thing’ in IoT could be a human or various devices have a system built with sensors. The objects have been assigned an IP address and have the ability to collect and transfer the data over a network without manual assistance. The IoT possess the ingredients of a thing that connect, compute and communicate.
Fig 1.1 Ingredients of IoT
Applications of IoT technologies can lead to significant operational improvements, such as increased efficiency, better performance, and enhanced safety. IoT encompasses a multitude of independent but complementary networks in various service sectors, such
as those supporting smart appliences",smart farming ",Smart grid ",transport and logistics, vehicular traffic management, healthcare services etc.",.The potential in this broad applicability of IoT technologies is reflected in projections of future IoT market revenue and growth.
Several industrial, standardization and research bodies are currently involved in the activity of development of solutions to fulfill the highlighted technological requirements. This survey gives a picture of the current state of the art on the IoT. More specifically, it:
· provides the readers with a description of the different visions of the Internet of Things paradigm coming from different scientific communities;
· reviews the enabling technologies and illustrates which are the major benefits of spread of this paradigm in everyday-life;
· offers an analysis of the major research issues the scientific community still has to face.
II. Things to be considered
a) Why IoT Now?
Computing economics, Miniaturation, Advances in data analytics, Widespread Adoption of IP, Ubiquitous Connectivity , Rise of cloud computing.
· Interconnectivity: anything can be interconnected with the global information.
· Heterogeneity: Interact with other devices through different networks.
· Dynamic Changes: the number of devices can change dynamically.
· Enormous scale: the number of devices that need to be managed.
c) Web Connectivity:
Some key aspects when considering web connectivity are range, data rate, power, frequency, security.
On the move, day time, night at any time communication, outdoor, indoor ",at any place communication. In between the computers, human to him an, human to thing, thing to thing at any thing communication.
e) Enabling Technologies:
Some of enabling technologies leads to growth of IoT that are
· Communication Network: Smart home IoT technologies typically operate in a LAN environment. Most IoT technology applications, other consumer or residential applications, operate within a WAN environment. PAN based IoTs enable the wireless connection of computers with printers
and other peripherals, entertainment systems with headsets and remote controls. And body area networks (BANS) offers connectivity between a variety of wearable technologies and smart clothes, and even implanted devices.
· Wireless Communications Protocols: Most IoT applications require the use of wireless communications protocols to enable the transmission of data between devices. Some of the more widely used communications protocols include: Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and variants, Bluetooth’s principle advantages are its low rate of power consumption, the capacity to handle multiple devices simultaneously, and its ability to transmit wirelessly without visual line of sight contact. A
Bluetooth variant, Bluetooth LE (also
known as Bluetooth Smart) offers all of Bluetooth’s communications advantages at significantly reduced power consumption rates.
· Near Field Communications: NFC is intended for use in PANs between devices that are within close proximity to each other, typically less than 20 cm (about eight inches).
· Zigbee : Zigbee-based IoT devices can communicate via line of sight at distances between 10 and 100 meters.
· Z Wave : a LAN environment communications protocol specifically
designed for use with compatible home automation controls.
f) Sensors: Sensors are low-powered, wireless micro
electronic devices that are designed to monitor a specific physical, electrical or chemical element and to transmit data on changes in that element over time.
g) Charging Technologies:
To support the power requirements of IoT devices and components, wireless charging technologies are becoming increasingly important. In addition to eliminating the need for power cords or cables, charging technologies allow IoT devices to be constructed without openings or sockets for power cords, making them less susceptible to damage from exposure to water and other liquids.
Finally, like most technology platforms, the IoT depends on multiple types of software. These include IoT platforms and protocols, embedded operating systems and dedicated IoT applications. Certain software tools are intended for use with specific IoT applications, such as those intended to support smart home devices. In addition, some software is proprietary and may be subject to certain commercial restrictions, while other software is open source and freely available for use.
Today’s IoT is already bringing advanced technological capabilities to multiple consumer, commercial and industrial market segments. Some examples of current and potential applications for IoT technologies include:
a) Health and healthcare -These markets include personal health and fitness devices that monitor physical activity, such as wrist bands and other wearable devices. They also include m-Health technologies that monitor and record vital patient data in real time, or that enable healthcare professionals to retrieve and update patient medical records from any location. And m-Health technologies will enable baby-boomer generation adults with the ability to age in place, helping to reduce their overall impact on healthcare costs.
b) Public safety - Cities and towns are quickly adopting IoT technologies to improve public safety and services. In some cases, these efforts leverage the transportation applications noted previously to help reduce city congestion. Other examples include smart phone apps for paying parking meter fees, or for reporting potholes or non-working traffic lights. Still others can help city officials monitor crime activity, allowing for the effective allocation of limited law enforcement resources.
Fig 3.1 Potential Applications of IoT
c) Energy infrastructure and distribution - Smart grid technologies are transforming the way in which energy is produced and distributed, enabling utility operators to more accurately estimate usage and to source energy from the most cost-effective suppliers. IoT smart grid applications can also enable energy users to more effectively monitor and control their energy usage, thereby reducing consumption as well as the need for added infrastructure.
d) Consumer and residential - IoT applications in these market sectors include domestic and home automation tools, such as remote monitoring and control of appliances, lighting, heating and air conditioning, water usage, entertainment systems and premises security. Also included in this category are wearable consumer devices, such as smart watches and smart eyeglasses, and clothing with embedded technologies.
e) Transportation and logistics domain - Advanced cars, trains, buses as well as bicycles along with roads and/or rails are becoming more instrumented with sensors, actuators, and processing power. Roads themselves and transported goods are also equipped with tags and sensors that send important information to traffic control sites and transportation vehicles to better route the traffic, help in the management of the depots, provide the tourist with appropriate transportation information, and monitor the status of the transported goods.
f) Smart museum and gym - As to smart leisure environments, the museum and the
gym are two representative examples where the IoT technologies can help in exploiting their facilities at the best. In the museum, for instance, expositions in the building may evoke various historical periods (Egyptian period or ice age) with widely diverging climate conditions. The building adjusts locally to these conditions while also taking
into account outdoor conditions. In the gym, the personal trainer can upload the exercise profile into the training machine for each trainee, who is then automatically recognized by the machine through the RFID tag. Health parameters are monitored during the whole training session and the reported values are checked to see if the trainee is overtraining or if she/he is too relaxed when doing the exercises.
Smart Farming / Agriculture – One of the newest trends in agriculture in using technology inorder to make smarter decisions, reduce cost and boost production. To helping the farmers and producers find a new approach to driving efficiency improving operations. Its all being achieved through the age of connected devices such as RFID tags and wearables. IoT in agriculture becoming a hyper connected business. Three ways of the IoT revolutionizes farming are livestock monitoring, precision farming and autonomous factors. Crop water management, precision agriculture, food production and safety ",etc.",
These examples represent just a small sampling of the myriad of current IoT applications, and illustrate some of the many potential benefits that can come from the continued growth and deployment of IoT technologies.
1. Open Issues
In IoT some of the challenges are Standards, Mobility support, Naming, Transport protocol, Traffic characterization and QoS support, Authentication, Data integrity, Privacy, Digital forgetting.
The Internet has changed drastically the way we live, moving interactions between people at a virtual level in several contexts spanning from the professional life to social relationships. The IoT has the potential to add a new dimension to this process by enabling communications with and among smart objects, thus leading to the vision of ‘‘anytime, anywhere, any media, anything” communications. The IoT has the potential to dramatically increase the availability of information, and is likely to transform companies and organizations in virtually every industry around the world. As such, finding ways to leverage the power of the IoT is expected to factor into the strategic objectives of most technology companies, regardless of their industry focus. The number of different technologies required to support the deployment and further growth of the IoT places a premium on interoperability, and has resulted in widespread efforts to develop standards and technical specifications that support seamless communication between IoT devices and components. Collaboration between various standards development groups and consolidation of some current efforts will eventually result in greater clarity for IoT technology companies.
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