This literature review will focus on the evident connection between youth joblessness and drug use in South Africa concentrating on misconduct, barbarism and aggressive behaviour at home. The literature review sets up what explore has been recently directed, prompting refined, clever inquiries regarding the issue. However, despite the firm evidence of an association between joblessness and drug abuse, the nature of this association remains highly problematic. Based on the available data, the author suggests that macro-economic conditions, although not directly influencing the joblessness rate, may nevertheless constitute an important antecedent variable in the causal chain leading to self-harmful behaviour. Further empirical research based on a longitudinal design is recommended as a matter of urgency so that a more definitive assessment of the aetiological significance of joblessness in parasuicide may be made (Phelps",1992:95).
The youth joblessness challenges in South Africa are closely related to the inability of young people to obtain employment owing to their lack of experience, which is all too often compounded by a lack of skills. The result is a growing cohort of young people with severely limited access to formal sector employment, and limited means to do anything about this. The characteristics of the youth unemployed need to be examined before the appropriate policies to boost youth employment could be determined. Almost all recent South African studies only briefly look at how the youths fared since the transition by comparing the 1995 October Household Survey (OHS) with the latest available Labour Force Survey (LFS), and dividing the working-age population (15-65) years into different age cohorts before analysing what happens in each age cohort
A study conducted by Oluwajodu et al (2015) shows that several factors are perceived to be the causes of graduate joblessness in the South African working sector. These include: skills, institution attended by graduate and differences in expectations from employers and graduates.
The joblessness rate among the age group 15 to 34 in South Africa has been growing over the past three years. This is reminiscent of global trends in youth joblessness. Youth joblessness has become a topical issue in many countries in the world as the figures soar. This trend may be ascribed to the impact of the world recession on output growth and employment, to structural changes in production as well as to the diminishing marginal utility of labour because of cost pressures. In 2003, males and females aged between 15 and 24 years accounted for about 41% of the world's unemployed, or an estimated 74 million people
Interventions to address youth joblessness depend on combining the efforts of all stakeholders and should focus on education and training, job readiness and experience as well as the creation of jobs in all geographical areas of South Africa.