Understanding the computational physics of cancer Essay

Understanding the computational physics of cancer

Matric No: 17CE023419

Name: Okeniyi Philip Olatunde

Sub-Department: Renewable energy

Introduction

Cancer is when unusual cells separate in an uncontrolled way. A few cancers may inevitably spread into different tissues. The greater part of the body's cells have explicit capacities and fixed lifespans. While it might seem like an awful thing, cell death is a piece of a characteristic and beneficial phenomenon called apoptosis.

A cell gets directions to die so the body can supplant it with a more current cell that capacities better. Cancerous cells do not have the parts that train them to quit isolating and to die.

Thus, they develop in the body, utilizing oxygen and supplements that would as a rule support different cells. Cancerous cells can shape tumors, weaken the invulnerable framework and cause different changes that keep the body from working normally.

Cancerous cells may show up in one region, at that point spread by means of the lymph hubs. These are bunches of safe cells situated all through the body. [1]

[image: ]

Figure 1: Cancer starts when cells change abnormally [2]

Cancerous tumors are malignant, which implies they can spread into, or attack, close-by tissues. What's more, as these tumors develop, some malignancy cells can sever and head out to far off spots in the body through the blood or the lymph framework and structure new tumors a long way from the first tumor.

In contrast to malignant tumors, kind tumors don't spread into, or attack, close-by tissues. Generous tumors can now and then be very vast, in any case. Whenever expelled, they more often than not don't develop back, while malignant tumors some of the time do. Not at all like most generous tumors somewhere else in the body, considerate cerebrum tumors can be dangerous. [ 3]

Cases of death

I. The Jamaica experience : A total of 2697 cancer-related death were archived among Jamaicans for the year 1999, representing 17.7% all things considered. Males represented 1466 and females for 1231. The age-balanced cancer death rate was 171.7 per 100",000 for males, 122.0 per 100",000 for females and 140.5 per 100",000 for the total population. Driving cancer mortality destinations for males were prostate, lung and stomach and in females, bosom, cervix uteri and extensive large bowel. Most death were recorded in the 55-64 and 65-multi year-age gatherings. In spite of settled cervical cancer screening programs, the determined death rate for cancer of the cervix uteri in Jamaican females (15.8 per 100",000) is roughly over multiple times that found in African-American females. [4]

II. The Chile experience : In Chile, cervical cancer is the second driving reason for death among ladies of regenerative age, causing in excess of 600 deaths every year. This investigation was worried about out to decide the concern and affirm the overwhelming human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among ladies introducing for cervical cancer screening in general wellbeing administrations in Chile. Ladies matured 18-64 years dwelling in the north and focal regions secured by six essential consideration focuses of Santiago, Chile, were welcome to take part from March 2014 to August 2015. Cervical swabs were inspected both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. [5]

III. The Qatar experience : This review, population-based examination investigated all enlisted cancer passings in Qatar between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012 (n = 1",224). The primary result measures were tolerant attributes: age, sexual orientation, nationality, cancer conclusion, year of death, and PoD. Time patterns for age-institutionalized extents of death in individual PoDs were assessed utilizing chi-square investigation. Chances proportion (OR) were resolved for factors related with the most favored (intense palliative consideration unit [APCU] and hematology/oncology ward) versus least favored (ICU and general drug ward) PoDs in Qatar, stratified by nationality.[6]

IV. The Africa experience : An estimated 14 million individuals were leaving with cancer and more than 8 million individuals died on in 2012. Over a large portion of the cases and about 66% of death happened in Africa and other low-and center salary districts. These numbers are required to ascend to almost 22 million cases (60% in low-and center pay nations) and 13 million death (70% in low-and center salary nations) by 2030. [7]

V. The USA experience : The date rate from cancer in the US has declined relentlessly in the course of recent years, as indicated by yearly insights revealing from the American Cancer Society. Starting at 2016, the cancer death rate for people consolidated had fallen 27% from its crest in 1991. This decrease means about 1.5% every year and more than 2.6 million death stayed away from somewhere in the range of 1991 and 2016. [8]

Cases of Cancer

Afghanistan

Breast

Albania

Breast

China

Mongolia

Esophageal

Liver

South America

Penile

Angola

Cervix uteri

Japan

Nasopharynx

UK

Carcinoma

Australia

Uganda

Breast

Cervix uteri

Austria

Pancreatic

Azerbaijan

Kidney

Bahrain

Breast

Bangladesh

Breast

Belarus

Colorectal Cancer

Belgium

Breast

Belize

Breast

Benin

Breast

Bhutan

Cervix uteri

Bolivia

Syria

Taiwan

Cervix uteri

Breast

Lung

[9]

what causes cancer

1. Chemical or toxic compound exposures: Benzene, asbestos, nickel, cadmium, vinyl chloride, benzidine, N-nitrosamines, tobacco or tobacco smoke (contains no less than 66 known potential cancer-causing synthetic compounds and poisons), asbestos, and aflatoxin.[11]

2. Environmental exposures. Pesticides, composts, and electrical cables have been investigated for an immediate connect to youth cancers. There has been proof of cancer happening among nonrelated youngsters in specific neighborhoods as well as urban areas. Regardless of whether pre-birth or baby presentation to these operators causes cancer, or whether it is an occurrence, is obscure.[10]

3. Hereditary qualities: various explicit cancers have been connected to human qualities and are as per the following: bosom, ovarian, colorectal, prostate, skin and melanoma; the particular qualities and different subtleties are past the extent of this general article so the peruser is alluded to the National Cancer Institute for more insights regarding hereditary qualities and cancer.[11]

4. A few types of high-portion chemotherapy and radiation. Now and again, kids who have been presented to these specialists may build up a second danger further down the road. These solid anticancer operators can adjust cells and additionally the insusceptible framework. A second threat is a cancer that shows up subsequently from treatment of an alternate cancer.[1O]

5. Family history, inheritance, and genetics may play an important role in some childhood cancers. [10]

which geographic locations are prone to cancer

Denmark

Though Demark is the developed and civilized nation , it own the world greatest cancer’s rate. The country is even named as the cancer capital of the world, having 326 people in 100",000 facing from this deadly disease. The prime reason behind this much high in cancer rate is that majority of the Danish female are smokers while the nation is also even prone to increased level of alcohol consumption. Another reason why Danish habitant seem to be chiefly susceptible to this disease is that its record of identiftying the disease is very good, implying that more number of cases are chosen up by the doctors here as compare to most other part of the globe [12]

Ireland

what are the possible micro organism that causes cancer

Many microorganisms are known to cause cancer.

Some examples are

1. Helicobacter pylori :which causes gastric cancer in humans and animals

2. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which causes crown gall in plants [13]

[image: ]list five second order partial differential equation associated to cancer

1.

[image: ]

2.

[25]

3. [image: ]

[26]

4.

list five simple equations on the subject matter

list five simple equations on the subject matter

1. [p = 1 - (1 - (1 - (1 - u)d)k)Nm ] [23]

2. [image: Exponential growth equation for tumors] [24]

3. [image: Gompertz Model for tumor growth] [24]

4. [image: Model of tumor growth] [24]

5. [image: Total energy in organism - conservation of energy] [24]

Views of 6 scientists on the subject matter

1. Professor Judith Bliss and Professor John Yarnold designed and led three randomised clinical trials in women with early-stage breast cancer: a pilot in 1986 followed by the two START trials in 1998. [18]

2. The ICR’s Professor Mike Jarman, and colleagues Dr Elaine Barrie and Professor Gerry Potter, began investigating an alternative theory – that these prostate cancers were using testosterone from elsewhere in body to grow, and might therefore still be treated by disrupting testosterone synthesis[19]

3. Professor Mitch Dowsett’s studies into the role of hormones in breast cancer have led to the clinical development of aromatase inhibitors. He holds membership to several senior committees and is on the executive committees for several clinical trials.[20]

4. Professor Nazneen Rahman and Professor Mike Stratton : set out on a creative system to find qualities like BRCA1 and BRCA2 that are associated with malignancy inclination as a result of their job in fixing harmed DNA. [21]

5. Professor Ashworth got to considering how BRCA2 may be focused on remedially. Numerous cutting edge focused on malignant growth drugs work by blocking overactive procedures that drive disease — a sufficiently hard issue. Focusing on procedures that are underactive, for example, DNA fix, can be considerably increasingly troublesome [22]

list 5 solutions to the problems

1. Reduce inflammation. Inflammation is the ongoing idea associating most endless malady including malignant growth. [16]

2. Reduce toxic exposure. Going clean and green means becoming more aware about how environmental toxins affect your health. [16]

3. Get regular medical care: Standard self-tests and screenings for different kinds of malignancies —, for example, disease of the skin, colon, cervix and bosom — can expand your odds of finding malignant growth early, when treatment is well on the way to be fruitful. [17]

4. Get vaccinated : Cancer prevention includes protection from certain viral infections. Talk to your doctor about vaccination against: Hepatitis B and Human papillomavirus (HPV)[17]

5. Protect yourself from the sun : Skin cancer is one of the most common kinds of cancer — and one of the most preventable.[17]

state four laws enacted to control the menace

Nigeria

1. Section 3 (2) (K) of the Decree provided that “any person who, without lawful authority deals in, sell, smoke or inhale the drug known as cocaine or other similar drugs shall be guilty under section 6 (3) (K) of an offence and liable on conviction to suffer death sentence by firing squad. [14]

2. Decree No. 48 of 1989, now an Act of Parliament CAP N30 Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 2004, establishes a new body, independent of other existing law enforcement agencies in the country called the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency. [14]

International

3. The handling and trade of hard drugs is on the zenith, being a joint target not only by the Netherlands, but also by the international community. This can be punished by maximum sentences of twelve years of imprisonment and/or a fine of up to €45",000. [ 15]

4. Taiwan carries a maximum penalty of death for drug trafficking, while smoking tobacco and wine are classified as legal entertainment drug.[15]

References

1. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323648.php

2. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/what-is-cancer

3. https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/what-is-cancer

4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12232943

5. http://www.cancerindex.org/Chile

6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4275179/

7. https://bvgh.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Africas-Emerging-Cancer-Crisis-A-Call-to-Action.pdf

8. https://www.cancer.org/latest-news/facts-and-figures-2019.html

9. http://chartsbin.com/view/41569

10. https://stanfordhealthcare.org/medical-conditions/cancer/cancer/cancer-causes.html

11.https://www.medicinenet.com/cancer/article.htm#what_are_risk_factors_and_causes_of_cancer

12. https://www.trendrr.net/8263/countries-with-highest-cancer-rate-world-india-japan-china-famous/

13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC154404/

14. https://punchng.com/nigeria-menace-illicit-drug-trafficking-abuse/

15. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prohibition_of_drugs

16. https://drhyman.com/blog/2015/08/07/5-strategies-to-prevent-and-treat-cancer/

17. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/in-depth/cancer-prevention/art-20044816

18. https://www.icr.ac.uk/about-us/our-achievements/our-scientific-discoveries/practice-changing-clinical-trials-in-radiotherapy-and-imaging

19. https://www.icr.ac.uk/about-us/our-achievements/our-scientific-discoveries/transforming-prostate-cancer-treatment-abiraterone

20. https://www.icr.ac.uk/our-research/researchers-and-teams/professor-mitch-dowsett

21. https://www.icr.ac.uk/about-us/our-achievements/our-scientific-discoveries/identifying-cancer-predisposition-genes

22.

23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20051132

24. http://chemoth.com/tumorgrowth

25. https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/1.4898331

26. http://inspirehep.net/record/640630/files/moyo.pdf

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