Ultrasonic sound-based navigation and assistive system Essay

Sensors are part of our day to day life. It is used in most of the application from automotive industries, home security applications, it also acts like human assistance. There are many types and versions of sensors used in different application. Each sensor performs sensor specific tasks. In this technical paper author talks about a real time system which uses ultrasonic sensor to help blind people. It is basically a system integrated on PCB which is connected to glove. This glove will be worn by blind people. It helps the blind person for detection of any barrier in front of him. It also has panic button on glove which acts as safety system in case of emergency. It has following components: Arduino Nano, Ultrasonic sensor, gyroscope, GSM and GPS module. Arduino Nano is used to control and communicate with other components. It makes sure that device is working normally without any error. It is also used to process the information received from the sensor and act accordingly. Ultrasonic sensor is used to calculate the distance from the sensor and to the nearest barrier. It uses “Distance= time * speed” as formula where time is the time taken by sound pulse to reflect back to sensor from the nearest barrier if any. Speed is speed of sound in air. It has the range about three to five meters. GPS module is used to provide the current location (latitude and longitude) of the user. It has in built internal antenna to trace the location of the user constantly. The function of GSM module is to send and receive messages from and to the registered number. The messages contain information about the location (latitude and longitude). When the user points the glove (containing ultrasonic sensor) by raising his/her hand, the distance will be calculated to the nearest barrier if any. Gyroscope is used to send the position of the hand (inclination of the user’s arm) in degrees to the system. A hand in resting position will not response. By having 2 information (position of the arm and sensor output) the system decides if to buzz the vibratory motor embedded within the glove or not. If the hand is facing front and distance is less than “safe distance” which is predefined it starts to vibrates indicating barrier. If hand is facing downward and the distance is less than “safe distance” there might be possibility of the pothole. A GPS module used are embedded within the PCB and will always keep track of the location (latitude and longitude) of the user. There is also a panic button present on the glove which is used in case of emergency. Upon pressing it user location will be sent to a web portal. The web portal will have all the contacts saved during registration. Through web portal, the location (latitude and longitude) of the user is then forwarded to these preregistered numbers and the police. This helps to take action as soon as possible. This real time system is cost effective and great assistance for blind person. This paper covers all the situations and circumstances regarding this device. It only shows the theoretical part of system. There were no experimental results to show if it would work properly in day to day life, which I think would have been included. This acts as a prototype for future device wherein they could also implement voice-based navigation and face recognition.

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