Ultrasonic sound based navigation and assistive system for visually impaired Essay

Sensors have become part of our daily life. It can used in many applications staring from automotive industry, home security applications, acts assistance for humans and so on. There are many sensors available with different versions for particular functionality. In this technical paper, author talks about applications of ultrasonic sensors for visually impaired people. It depicts how it can be tool to assist them in their daily life. This proposed real time system is embedded into glove which is worn by blind person. Author uses an ultrasonic sensor, Gyroscope, GSM module GPS module integrated on a Arduino Uno. The purpose of Arduino Uno is to manage, communicate all the other components so that it can function normally without any errors. Ultrasonic Sensor are used to calculate distance from its current position to any object in front of it. It basically uses sound wave to calculate the distance using the formula Distance= time * speed. Where time is the amount of time taken by sound wave to reflect back if any obstacles are present. Speed is speed of sound in air. It has a range of 3-5 meters. GPS module provides the current location of the person. It has an antenna in built into this module which constantly keep tracks. The information is sent to registered number when ever a request is sent to GSM module or panic button is pressed. GSM module is used to send and receive messages from and to the device and the registered person. It has the current location of the person (latitude and longitude). The ultrasonic sensor embedded into glove is pointed in the direction where the user wants to move by raising his/her hand. It calculates the distance to the nearest obstacles if any and sends to Arduino Uno for further processing. Gyroscope is used determine if the hand is in the resting position or not. If its in not in resting position it will send position of the hand in degrees to Arduino Uno. If the distance is less than the safe distance (pre-determined) and angle is not in resting position then instructions to buzz the vibratory motor embedded within the glove is issued by Arduino Uno. It becomes quite difficult if the hand is facing downward and not resting, If the distance is not between the safe distances, the motor buzzes. This ensures protection against protrusions from the ground as well as if there's pothole. Panic button is on the glove and can be used by user when ever he/she feels unsafe. As soon as the button is pressed the location of the user is sent to the web portal. The web portal will have contacts saved that were added during registration. This real time system acts a good, cost-effective system for blind people. The approaches and scenarios were used to analyse were perfectly taken into account. But there was no practical outcome to prove this would work in day today life. Some experimental results would have been included according to me. The accuracy of the system was also not included. This could be best prototype for future work which may include voice based navigation as well as face recognition system.

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