Horticulture, Agriculture and Aquaculture based Location and Produce in New Zealand
New Zealand, an island located on the southwestern side of the Pacific Ocean, neighbors to Australia, Fiji, Tonga and New Caledonia (Chen, 2014). This island nation is recognized as a developed country based on their achievement in the fields of health and education. The location and climate of the country allows different types of fruits, vegetables, crops to grow. The managing heads that has been responsible in putting forth New Zealand on the world map in respect to the large amount of produce, are: Gallaghers, Zespri, LIC, Tru-Test, AgResearch , Milfos (Rosin, 2013). Gallaghers has been known to provide technological means such as, electrical fence, to the farmers. LIC and Tru-Test have been responsible in carrying out the genetics-based analysis which will allow for genetically modified crops to be produced that are capable of resisting diseases as well as pests (Benge et al., 2014). They have also been responsible for genetically modifying the livestock to increase their ability to produce more as well as be resistant to diseases. The country earns more than $15 billion per annum of revenue, alone from agricultural, Horticultural an aquacultural produce (Rees, 2016).
The following sections deals with locations in New Zealand those are popular for their horticultural, agricultural and aquacultural produce. The organic based aspect has also been considered in few of the examples.
Horticulture in New Zealand
New Zealand based horticulture is considered as an industry worth $5 billion industry, responsible for exporting products to several countries across the globe (DeSilva & Forbes, 2016). The primary horticultural based products, which are being exported, are kiwifruit, apples, avocados, onions, buttercup squash, processed vegetables, potatoes. The following giants have been responsible in providing with equipment at the horticultural farms, such as: Milfos, Waikato Milking Systems, PGC Wrightsons, RD1, Goldpine, CRT, Giltrap.
Five Horticultural Farming areas and their produce as identified are:
Hawke’s Bay – Kiwi (Organic Farming)
Kiwifruit has gained popularity in the Hawke’s Bay area of New Zealand (Scrimgeour & Locke, 2015). Kiwifruit requires well-drained and fertile soils to grow. It requires loamy soil, which needs to be enriched in nitrogen, phosphorus as well as potassium. Kiwifruit requires being sheltered from the wind as gusts of wind destroys the flowering shoots (May, 2014). Artificial windbreaks provide relief from this situation. It also needs to be protected from frosts. Water sprinklers and wind machines are used in order to protect the plants. Kiwifruit also requires adequate moisture to thrive well. The leading cultivars of kiwifruit in New Zealand are: Abbott, Allison, Bruno, Hayward, Monty, Greensill (Mowat, 2014). Many kiwifruit cultivars has availed to organic method of farming as it lead to an increment in the revenues that the farmers could earn in contrast to the conventional means that were used in growing the fruit.
Christchurch – Market Gardening
Market gardening is considered as a thriving business in New Zealand from the horticulture aspect (Muller et al., 2015). The crops are grown in a continuous fashion, especially in green houses. There are several cultivars in the Christchurch region that participates in market gardening. Several fresh vegetables and fruits such as potatoes, onions and squash have been grown along with different flowers through market gardening (Rutherford, McGimpsey & Narayan, 2013). Onions have acquired the largest market as an export vegetable. There are several other crops that grown with the help of market gardening such as, carrots, broccoli, parsnips, cauliflower, sweet potato, cabbage, lettuces, asparagus and spinach (Kelsey, 2015). Tomatoes and capsicums are also grown in this way. Orchids are famously cultivated through market gardening.
Marlborough – Wine
Marlborough is recognized for the finest wine production, not only in New Zealand, but it is well renowned in the world too (Zahraie et al., 2016). The wine from this region is known to impart distinct flavor and aroma to it. Location of Marlborough and the favorable combination of meso climate and diverse soil allows the wine to taste so good. Other than these factors, sufficient sunshine, limited rainfall, no occurrence of seasonal frosts and fertility of the soil, has aided the production of good grapes for the production of wine. Marlborough is responsible for contributing to 75% of total wine production in New Zealand (Alfaro, Jeffs & King, 2014). The vineyards are mainly located in three regions of Marlborough, namely, Southern Valleys, Wairau Valley (for example, Renwick, Blenheim and Cloudy Bay region) and Awatere Valley. Marlborough is known to produce the best Sauvignon, which is globally renowned (Parr et al., 2013).
Auckland - Mushrooms
Mushroom cultivation is gathering pace in turning into a blooming industry in New Zealand. Button mushrooms, Perigold black truffles, hazel, English oak, field mushroom, oyster mushrooms, poplar mushrooms, burgundy mushrooms, shaggy ink cap, are commonly grown in New Zealand (Guerin-Laguette et al., 2014). However, Auckland is famous for farming shittake mushrooms that are exported fresh across the globe. Shittake mushrooms are famous for their flavor and texture and are known to have health benefits as well. It has an attractive appearance where it flaunts a brown dome on top followed by white gills below (Rights, 2014). It can be easily cultivated on logs of deciduous trees, mainly of, oak, poplar, birch, beech and maple.
Otago – Summer Fruits
The summer fruits that grow in New Zealand are apricots, cherries, nectarines, peaches and plums (Leong & Oey, 2012). Hawke’s Bay and Central Otago is known to be the primary producer of summer fruits in New Zealand. The season commences around November and mid December period is considered as the peak season continuing through January, February and March and finally coming to an end in April (Wearing et al., 2012). The main types of cherries that are cultivated are: Sonnet, Sweet Heart, Staccato, Celeste, Samba, Skeena, Burlatt, Kordia and Sweet Valentine. The variety of nectarines being cultivated is called Red Gold. Flatto, Donut, Alba and Southern Ice are the varieties of peaches that grow in Central Otago (Bills, 2014). The variety of plums being cultivated is known as Primetime.
Agriculture in New Zealand
International trade in New Zealand is highly sustained by agriculture-based produce. New Zealand boats of having several sheep and beef farms. Three Agricultural Farming areas and their produce as identified are:
Waikato – Dairy Farming (Organic Farming)
Dairy farming in New Zealand is a major contributor to the betterment of the economy of the Waikato region. Being the eighth largest producer of milk New Zealand, has a thriving dairy farming industry. Fonterra, the dairy company, is responsible for producing and managing the large amount of dairy being produced to be exported across the globe. The breeds of cows that are mainly based in New Zealand are: Holstein-Friesian, Jersey and Ayrshire (Foote, Joy & Death, 2015). Dairy farming is part of the organic food sector. Farmers are worried about the implication that pesticides and artificial herbicides has on the milk. There is a demand on a global scale in respect to the organic dairy products. Organic production makes use of positive management based systems that aims at eliminating the necessity of using chemicals in agriculture (Chobtang et al., 2015). Organic dairy farming works towards a sustainable measure where the farmers make use of rock forms, seaweed and worm based composts to enrich the soil instead of fertilizers made of urea and phosphate. Conventional health care supplements that were administered to the animals were mainly antibiotics and drenches (Pinxterhuis et al., 2015). However, with the advent of organic farming, to improve the health of the animals, apple cider vinegar, garlic, seaweeds and chelated minerals have been used.
Canterbury – Sheep Farming
Along with diary, sheep farming is an important commodity furthering the economy of New Zealand. There are several breeds of sheep that were cultivated by the New Zealand Sheepbreeders Association, namely, Border Lecister, Texel, Borderdale, Suffolk, Corriedale, Shropshire, Corriedale, Ryeland, Dorper, Polwarth, Dorset Down, Poll Dorset, East Friesian, Oxford, Finnsheep, Lincoln and Hampshire (Burton & Peoples, 2014). The Merino sheep species is known for its good quality of wool. Along with other species, such as Perendale and Coopworth, they are known to be good producers of wool as well as meat. The Canterbury plains concentrates on sheep farming that are reared for the wool and the meat (Bray et al., 2013).
Pukekohe – Potato
There are more than 170 potato growers present in New Zealand, concentrating mainly in the areas of Pukekohe, Hawkes Bay, Manawatu and Canterbury. Pukehoke has been given the label of being the food basket of New Zealand and it has been responsible for feeding the mouths all across the globe for years together (Wrath & Smith, 2015). In order to meet the growing demand of the vegetable, production of the vegetable crop has increased. The varieties of the crop that are mainly cultivated are: Russett Burbank, Draga, Laura, Fianna, Frisia, Innovator, Rua, Nadine, Agria, Moonlight, Desiree, Ilam Hardy and Red Rascal (Lister & Munro, 2013). Potatoes are responsible for feeding the growing mouths in the whole world, the only crop which grows in plenty without any particular growing conditions and available the year round. However, the only drawback that potato cultivators face is the large amount of water which is required to grow potatoes (Bajaj, 2013). With the water scarcity faced on a global level for potable water at times restricts its production. Then scientists see this ‘no fuss’ crop as the only remedy to the problem of food scarcity.
Aquaculture in New Zealand
Aquaculture in New Zealand mainly comprises of mussels, oysters and salmon. It is a huge industry, aimed at improving the economy of the island nation. Two Aquacultural Farming areas and their produce as identified are:
Big Glory Bay, Stewart Island – Salmon
There were three species of salmon, which were originally introduced in New Zealand. However, only the king salmon strain, thrived and has established itself as one of the biggest contenders in the list of aquaculture-based products. The salmon are either reared as part of freshwater farming or sea-cage ranching (Cobcroft et al., 2014). In Big Glory Bay, Stewart Island, salmon are cultivated in large cages that are suspended in the sea which are being linked with the help of floating walkways.
Paihia, Bay of Islands – Oyster
Bluff oysters and rock oysters are the commonly found wild strain of oysters found in New Zealand (Floysand, Haland & Jakobsen, 2016). A third strain is the Pacific oyster, which is mainly cultivated in the oyster farms in New Zealand. The growth rates of these oysters are quite high compared to the rock oysters. Fresh oysters, typically from the Paihia, Bay of Islands, in New Zealand, are renowned all over the world due to their delightful taste (McGinnis & Collins, 2013). The characteristically sandy bottoms of the Paihia, Bay of Islands, allow the cultivation of oysters. Due to the location of the Bay of Islands, the cultivation is carried out throughout the year irrespective of the season. Other areas have to to close their shop during monsoons and winters (Smale, 2014). They are renowned for being able to provide oysters throughout the summer period.
Agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture have highly contributed in aiding New Zealand to receive global recognition by exporting produce to several countries across the globe. Each produce has its own level of importance and popularity. With innovative moves carried out in the field of biotechnology, genetics along with farm machinery, has been aiding the production of meat and dairy products. Genetically modified crops, and livestock has been able to produce progenies that are resistant to diseases and pests. The use of organic farming has resulted into chemical free produce which has been helping in meeting the demands of the masses aiming towards the consumption of organic produce. Not only organic farming, but also the concept of eco farming has been gaining popularity where not only the well being of the produce are being taken care of, but also measures are being taken to avoid harming the eco system. Several cultivation practices has been replaced by eco friendly measures so that the pollutants that emerges from farming can be reduced. Efforts have led to New Zealand developing sustainable and green model of farming.
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