Transactions Philosophical Of Royal Society Essay


Discuss About The Philosophical Transactions Of Royal Society?



Most organisms do not end up as fossils. This is because of several natural and biological processes and factors surrounding the claim. Wave actions, scavengers, and decomposition leads to few fossilization. However, accounting to statistics given, most animals whose habitation are on the floor of the sea form most of the fossils available. In those on the sea floor, a still fewer number are for those with soft body parts comparing with those with hard parts such as shells or skeleton. This is because animals with hard parts like shells such as trilobite are likely to be fossilized compared to soft parts or tissues of animals. Shells and other hard parts of animals have toughened parts hence cannot be destroyed by decay or by scavengers easily. Although not easily destroyed, natural processes such as wave action and other biological organisms such as fungi and algae may destroy the hard parts of organisms in this scenario a shell.

Having said that the soft tissues decay leaving the hardened parts to be fossilized in appropriate conditions, the shape of the soft parts is determined by looking at the shape of the hard part that enclosed the soft part. Also scientists compare the fossilized animal with the species of the present animal to determine the shape of the soft parts that decayed and was not fossilized.

Describe the steps that take place for the animal with a shell to become fossilized.

Fossilization is dependent first in the death of the animal. For those with shells, the soft tissues of the animal decay and are washed away by water moving through the shell. The remaining part (shell) is then buried quickly by sediments where the probability of fossilization of an animal increases if its habitation is in the sediment that is on the sea floor. Burial with a rapid inward flow of sediment is required to preserve fragile animals such as starfish and crinoids. This explains why most crinoids, for instance, are found only as stem pieces The regular process after burial involve chemical replacement and compaction. Replacement occurs when water dissolves the hard parts replacing them with mineral material. This is a chemical action which may take place slowly reproducing the little features of the prototype animal shells are usually well preserved through this process. The common mineral for replacement is calcite, silica, pyrite, and hematite. After the initial hard parts are substituted, usually they lose traces of their original structure but leaving the original shape. Also, replacement involves mineral precipitation where minerals dissolve with the buried part of the organism. After an extended period, the rock may have the appearance of the shell or all traces of the shell are lost but an external mold is preserved.

What major group of animals would you expect to be fossilized in amber? Explain your choice

Some small animals such as insects such as the alien insect that existed 100 million years ago and juvenile birds example being the baby bird in the time of dinosaurs that is 99 million years ago have been found to be commonly fossilized in amber. According to Thomas (2016), most amber fossilized baby bird are juvenile. Thus insinuating that they were young hence unable to free themselves from the sticky fluid from the trees. With larger animal categorically missing in amber fossilization means that they were able with ease to free themselves from the sticky liquid. Other documented animals which have undergone amber fossilization are the lizard of the Caribbean which existed 20 million years ago, Mid-Cretaceous Wathondara kotejai insect, aunts living 99 million years old and the stinging scorpion. From the examples provided small animals were easily fossilized by amber which is a plant resin usually aromatic. The aromatic resin can drop from trees or ooze down the trees. Consequently filling internal grooves or long furrow trapping leaves, seeds, feathers, insects and other small animals.

What are two inferences (conclusions) that you can make from this skeletal structure about the animal from Jurassic period?

The animal has large bones all through the body; this suggests that the animal weighs heavily because of inside central part of air-filled sac going through this colossal bones. The mammoth bones additionally empower the animal to become greater consequently it is a large animal.

Another detectable component is the webbed appendages. This is proof that the creature flourished in water, a reality that is further improved by its streamlined body. The long tail more likely than not been utilized to give vitality to moving the creature in the water. The tail bones give an extensive surface range to muscle connection. Aside from using its tail for development it can likewise be utilized as a weapon in case of assault or to blur off competition, for example scrambling for mates. The game plan and sort homodont teeth are an unmistakable sign that the creature's method of nourishing is predation. It is additionally plausible that the creature bolstered on other oceanic creatures like the Pisces. This is further supported by its big eyes that provide a binoculars vision to spot prey at far distances and either side. It also shows flexibility in its movement, when considering its backbone, adapting it to a predatory mode of feeding.

Other lines of evidences apart from fossils useful in building our understanding of evolutionary history.

Researchers and evolutionists have had scientific facts that prove evolution history and the existence of organisms. Several areas that have been widely looked upon include the geographical distribution, comparative anatomy, cell biology, fossil records, and embryology. In this section, we will discuss two namely geographic distribution and comparative anatomy.

Evolutionists claim that 15 billion years ago the earth was one vast mass called Pangaea. Due to internal action in the core of the land's surface, the vast mass started disintegrating and moving to the present continents. Due to this disintegration, animals which were similar in characteristics and behavior formed different components due to new weather conditions and climatic changes. Though there are traces of similarities in this animals, some differences also can be observed. Examples of this animals in different continents with similar traits are jaguar in the Amazon forest (South America), leopards in the African forests and tigers in Asia. From the example, all these animals belong in the same genus. Another commonly given an example is different species of camels. In Africa, camels which are less hairy with one hump have their habitation while in South America hairy, and two-humped camels exist.

The second evolution evidence is comparative anatomy. Most mammals have similar limb form known as pentaductile limb meaning five form limb. Some mammals such as human beings have their limbs adapted to walking (hind limb) and grasping (forelimb). Similarly, others are suited to flying like bats, swimming in whales and running in horses just to mention a few. This observation proves or insinuates that this organism with same limb form have a similar origin with but due to their environment and habitation they have adapted to different functions hence the structures are commonly known us homologous structures. On this line also there are structures called analogous. This is structures with different origin but has been adapted to perform similar functions. The example includes bird's hind limbs and monkey's limb. These two animals have a different background that is diverse families but their structures precisely the limbs have been adapted to perform similar functions which are grasping.


In all ages, people have always been curious about the existence of life on earth. Though people never fail to give an explanation of their imagination of life existence, substantial and convincing explanation lacks in most peoples theories. Others such as Lamarck in the 19th century came up with the theory of use and disuse to explain life existence, but the knowledge of genetics made the explanation void. Though most have lacked a clearer scientific explanation, the excavation, discoveries, and dating of ancient fossils has given light to the most extinct organism, and its study has provided light to how life could have been millions of or years that have passed. Apart from fossil records, other evidence has been pivotal in giving more light concerning this heavily researched topics. Proof of geographical distribution, embryology, comparative anatomy and cell biology are also providing vital information in understanding the concept of evolutionary history and existence of life on earth. With the already held information and the continued undying research on evolution and origin of life, conclusive information will be gathered to answer the questions that have been held for ages without sufficient scientific explanation and putting to rest the vague explanations or theories that are below the experimental threshold.


Poinar, G. and Brown, A.E., 2017. An exotic insect Aethiocarenus burmanicus gen. management. nov.(Aethiocarenodea ord. nov., Aethiocarenidae fam. nov.) from mid-Cretaceous Myanmar amber. Cretaceous Research, 72, pp.100-104.

Taylor, M.A., 1993. Stomach stones for feeding or buoyancy? The occurrence and function of gastroliths in marine tetrapods. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 341(1296), pp.163-175.

Thomas, B., 2016. Stunning Amber Bird Wings. Creation Science Update. Posted on ICR. org psychology, 11.

Viney, M. and Neff, K., 2017. Patagonia's Jurassic-Aged Conifer Cones: Keys to a Botanic and Geologic Past. Rocks & Minerals, 92(2), pp.172-179.

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