Geographic information system: “A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. The key word to this technology is Geography – this means that some portion of the data is spatial. In other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth. Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features. An example of this would be schools. The actual location of the schools is the spatial data. Additional data such as the school name, level of education taught, student capacity would make up the attribute data. It is the partnership of these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective problem solving tool through spatial analysis.
GIS is more than just software. People and methods are combined with geospatial software and tools, to enable spatial analysis, manage large datasets, and display information in a map/graphical form.
From the above classification we can clearly understand that GIS plays important role in making decision by providing information about locations. It provides the geographical data in map form that makes it more clear to understand and select the location. It is very helpful as it provides the processed data showing the result which can be used as it is. Importance of GIS: GIS is important for every business for making the decision of location of operation which will complement the business as GIS is system which help the business in getting data about the location from which it can select the suitable one. It helps in decision making by:
Providing the data about the location in which business already exists which help in setting links with existing those locations.
Providing data of locations which meet the requirements for setting new business. For example: transportation facilities available in specific location, accessible by the target market etc.
Giving information of distribution of population, like in which location most of the population exists and where there is least. This will help to decide whether it is beneficial to go for location with high population or not and availability of location in these areas.
It also provide the inside information of location like what is the nature of location, is there more frequent occurrence of natural calamities or not, are those natural calamities severe or not etc.
It also help in mapping the changes occurred in past times which will help in understanding the trends in changes so business can change according to those changes. For example: the household present in particular area increases that could be seen as positive point in selecting that location.
GIS can be very helpful in selection of location for business: The selection of location is very important decision and plays important role in the success of business. GIS provide information relevant to be considered to decide the relevant location. By considering the information provided by this system business can select accurate location to operate in such as level of population, changes in that location etc. this will help in understanding the nature of location that is considered to whether this location is meeting the requirements for location or not.