The social construction of geography Essay

The research is about social construction of geography which mainly talk about maps as it

considered one of the factors that social construction are generated as stated by Benedict

Anderson’s Imagined Communities, which is a resource about social dynamics of mapping. In

addition, it is stated that maps became a real instrument to concretize projections on surface of

the Earth. The goal of the research is to understand how maps are sociological? , how the names

of the streets, neighborhood comes from?, and to clearly explain power of mapping in urban

sociology. First, the research defined power maps. Then, examples about how Google maps

changes the names of the neighborhoods of different cities. After that, it is talking about the

ghost map and how places infected with cholera identified. Then, the Opportunity Zone will be

illustrated. Last but not least, Internet Service Provider and Global Positioning System. Finally",

the usage of geography maps in Egypt.

Power maps are strategic instruments by which performers try to evaluate the social ground in

which they live, and how they can move further their company’s agenda or their personal agenda

within that ground. It is also called power analysis which is defined as it evaluates the relation of

these actors with each other and as a power that the actors of particular action field have in

specific decisions. Social movement companies, community and labor are the most frequent

users of power mapping in order to strategize social alteration campaigns. Maps help

organizations in many ways by informing it who they require to influence. Also, let the

companies to take a shade approach to manipulating decision makers through a relationships

chain that attaches them to each other, in addition to strategize how to counteract the manipulate

of their enemy. (Noy 2008:4).

To start with the examples of how Google maps changed the names of neighborhoods in various

cities: Neighborhood in San came from the first family who lived in this place whose names are

Robert and Mary Murray. They set up their family and home in the 18th century. Their home

called by this name as it was built on a hill so commonly named as Francisco is called East Cut

on Google maps which a lot of people wonder where this name came from. The residents

assumed that they live in Rincon Hill. It is been shown that the East Cut is a local potential to

join the Folsom Street, Transbay areas and Rincon Hill under a new identity and standard to be

suitable in our neighborhood. In addition, the East Cut harkens reverse to a time when our

society was an ineffaceable part of San Francisco, although constructing a sense of price and

place nowadays (The East cut website 2019). It is been said by executive director of the

nonprofit, Andrew Robinson that group’s board refused any other name for the neighborhood

except East cut due to referring to 1869 construction task to cut during Rincon Hill. Then group

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of street cleaners and streetlight posters with East Cut outfit is paid by non profit. (As Google

maps rename neighborhoods, residents fume (Nicas: 2018). Furthermore, other neighborhood in

Manhattan called Murray Hill and people don’t know where this name comes from. It is been

found that this name Murray Hill (Stuytown website 2019).

Moreover, hill in Los Angeles appeared in Google maps as Silver Lake Heights and it was only a

joke by an architect, Jeffrey Schneider who lives there calling this name only in advertisements

in order to rent apartment downstairs. It is said that maps is created by Google from third party

information, users, public resources and satellites.

In addition, Detroit neighborhood inhabitants are confused by the name of their district as

Google maps name it Fishkorn and it is Fiskhorn, it is said that Google use names of the

neighborhoods from map which are local stated online, said by Detroit city planner who called

Timothy Boscarino, (As Google maps renames neighborhoods, residents fume (Nicas: 2018)).

Names of the sites in Austin city is classified for salve proprietors and confederates. There is

awkward truth about name of the city which is Texas pioneer battled Mexico's attempts to forbid

servitude, stressed that without slaves the local would not thrive, and requested that slave

proprietors be reimbursement in the event that they surrendered their slaves. Across Texas the

name of Stephen F. Austin is found. Furthermore, there is a university in East Texas named with

his name. Also, there are two schools, one of them in Permian Basin and the other one in Rio

Grande Valley named Austin Elementary schools. Stephen F. Austin name is everywhere on

streets and public buildings like pioneers who reconciled Texas and succeed in achieving the

independence of Texas including James Bowie and Sam Houston in 19th century, (Stephan F.

Austin defended slavery. Should the Texas capital be renamed? , (Haag, 2018).

Moreover, there is a book called Ghost Map which describes the Cholera appeared in London as

a bacterial infection found in food or water that has been infected by feces. Places with sewage

treatment and poor water cause this disease. (Cholera, 2016). Houses which have experienced

important deaths more glowing on maps as each death was signified by a thick black bar. There

is a visual codes added in an existing plan to identify the position of original disease hollow and

the site of deaths of cholera. Cooper sketched a black bar by the address for houses that have

bear a loss followed by thin lines signifying how many deaths had happened at that address.

Neighborhood deaths shape will look different not an ideal circle, if the cholera were one way or

another increasing as miasmatic release from the pump (The ghost Map book, 2006).

In different networks, the specialists imagine that this mapping could help recognize destinations

for new Head Start focuses, or neighborhoods for "Opportunity Zones" made by the 2017 tax

law. Children from low-opportunity neighborhoods, they propose, could justify need for

particular secondary schools. For any government program or community give that objectives a

particular place, this information proposes a superior method to pick those places — one put

together not with respect to neighborhood poverty levels, yet on whether we expect kids will

escape poverty as grown-ups. “Is opportunity a block away? This is the kind of questions that we

could ask. The appropriate responses appeared here depend on the grown-up income of 20.5

million children, caught in unknown, singular dimension enumeration and duty information that

interfaces every child with his or her folks. That information covers almost all kids in America

conceived somewhere in the range of 1978 and 1983, in spite of the fact that the guide here

outlines the subset of those kids brought up in less fortunate families.

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The examples extensively remain constant for kids growing up today, the scientists accept",

despite the fact that the information mirrors the experience of individuals now in their 30s. In

quickly changing urban areas like Seattle, a few neighborhoods will look very changed at this

point. So in illustration their chance maps, the lodging specialists here, working with Mr.

Chetty's group, additionally considered markers like poverty rates and test scores for poor

understudies today. Moreover, for certain areas in Milwaukee or New Haven, that number was

far higher: As numerous as one of every four poor dark young men experiencing childhood in

those spots was imprisoned. Detailed Maps Show How Neighborhoods Shape Children for Life

(Badger and Bui, 2018).

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In addition, Maps are created by Times article which is dependent on your ISP address which

stands for Internet Service Provider which means you access the Internet. So you should see the

region around you when you sign in. On the off chance that you need to investigate further into

mapping, check whether your organization buys in to Policy Map. They have information on

tons, crime, training and human services progressively, all dependent on details tracts, postal

districts. It has been an extraordinary apparatus for me in my exploration on urban healthcare.

(What is an ISP and IP address?, 1999)

The devices such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and smart phones disclosed to us how to

get to our goal, and where the closest service stations and restaurants were. In addition, before

the coming of these convenient electronic devices the author would pour over maps before an

excursion to an obscure locale to get a feeling of separation, possibly its geology, and where

places are in connection to others in the zone. While making a heading for a spot known for its

sand ridges, she sets the GPS to the directions recorded on a site. Furthermore, the knowledge

may well be viewed as another technological modification, where paper maps or canine eared

travel books end up out of date. Yet, as accommodating as applications and GPS may be, they

may likewise enable us to limit our concentrate excessively and pass up the more extensive

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setting of where we are going, yet what individuals and thoughts are around us. The electronic

transformation causes us restricted our concentration inside the more extensive social world.

People additionally gain so much from the web and its derivatives; we may seek one term and

discover something related we didn't know to search for. From the vehicle we could discover

where to locate the best gas costs or look at the menu of a close-by eatery before driving there.

One of the extraordinary parts of an excursion is seeing unobtrusive geographic changes en route

and perceiving how things are associated. Moreover, new advances can be valuable and can

interface us to each other in one of a kind ways; for instance, numerous social developments

depend on Twitter and Facebook to assemble members. These equivalent advancements can in

some cases dishearten us from utilizing out-dated methods for disclosure, however, Road Maps

and Social Context, (Sternheimer 2012).

Moreover, accurate topographic maps are one of the essential elements for designing and

decision making in large engineering projects. Traditional surveying techniques for the

Production of geography maps are restricted in productivity since they're time and price intense.

However, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used in Egypt since 1985, but only in

static mode for foundation geodetic control points. Egyptian display system based on the model

map projection transverse Mercator, using a projection cylinder imaginary axis to be parallel to

the Earth's equator and perpendicular to its axis of rotation. The local mapping system is

segmented into three belts or zones in order to reduce the projection deformation. So for the

primary time in Egypt, associate integrated approach of mixing GPS positioning and terrestrial

measurement techniques has been developed and used for the production of geography maps at a

large scale. The new approach has many deserves over alternative ancient measurement

strategies in terms of accuracy, productivity, time and price savings. It has shown that this

advanced technique reduces the required time by seventy five and ends up in fiftieth saving of

the prices of applying ancient measurement strategies. Moreover, the new approach nevertheless

satisfies the national standards and specifications for geography maps. Hence, it's suggested to

utilize this contemporary methodology for the production of geography maps at the national

scale in Egypt. Maps is applied in Egypt in a very expressive way as it helps people to reach their

destinations as fast as they could and by giving them the names of the streets in order to avoid

getting lost, therefore it is successfully applied in Egypt. (Alnaggar and Dawod 1999: 1-7).

To conclude, maps are essential in everyone’s life as it is the instrument to approach any place in

an easy way. Names of the neighborhood changes in Google maps very fast as Google changes

them according to word of mouth which makes it easier for people to be aware of the places. In

addition, houses which lose from cholera disease have found in maps in order to warn people

from these places. Furthermore, IPS and GPS are very important also for people as they help to

minimize the time they can take to reach their destination by giving them the directions and

names of the streets, which is applied in Egypt from long time ago.

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References:

Johnson, S. (2006). The ghost map: The story of London's most terrifying

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