The Social And Cultural Impact Of Tourism On The Host Countries Essay

Question:

Write a report about the social and cultural impact of tourism on the host countries.

Answer:

Introduction

The report underlines and covers the social and cultural impact of tourism on the host countries. The report presents a cohesive depiction of the various influences of tourism on the host countries. It can be observed that tourism is growing at a rampant rate in the current age and this casts both positive as well as negative influence on the host countries. The report is conducted in the city of Cologne in Germany. It is a city comprising of rich heritage and depicts ancient architecture and heritage structures. Cologne is known for its endless attractions and it is led by famous cathedral. It is voted as the most popular attraction for the tourists. The landscape of the museum of the city is famous for its art. The city also has in store for the chocolate and sports lover. The residents of the city are known for their liberal nature and it is easy to get along with the people of the city. The city is of Cologne is extended on both the sides of the river Rhine and it is less than 80kms from Belgium (L?ck et al, 2015).

Methodology

The attitude survey was used for this case study in which residents were made to give their views and perceptions about tourism on the host nations. Attitude survey is an important tool, which helps in assessing the social and cultural impact of tourism on host countries. It is an empirical study of the social and cultural inferences on the host country and the residents and evaluates the host citizens' attitude towards the impact of tourism. A questionnaire was used to include the data and information required for the case study. Secondary data was used for this report. Case study analysis was used as the methodology. “Primary and secondary data collection method” was used for the purpose of the case study. The information was collected from different books, journals and internet source.

Findings

Socio-cultural impacts of tourism

This part of the report underlines and covers the social and cultural impact of tourism on the host countries. The report presents a cohesive depiction of the various influences of tourism on the host countries. It can be observed that tourism is growing at a rampant rate in the current age and this casts both positive as well as negative influence on the host countries. The report is conducted in the city of Cologne in Germany. Tourism affects the social and cultural aspect of the host nations. They contribute to the value system, social and cultural system, and moral grounds of the host country (Mason & Peter, 2015).

This part of the report highlights the negative and positive impact of tourism in the host country.

Positive impact

Tourism act as a force of peace

Travelling helps in bringing people of different caste and community into contact with each other. The educational element of tourism helps in fostering understanding between different cultures, peoples and also provides exchange of culture between the guests and the hosts. Because of this reason tourism helps in developing mutual understanding between peoples of different community and culture and also helps in reducing their prejudices (Pernecky & Tomas, 2013).

Tourism helps in strengthening communities

Tourism also helps in strengthening communities in several ways. For example the festivals and events, where the local residents are the primary participants and viewers are often developed and rejuvenated in respond to the interest of the tourist (Lee & Tsung, 2013).

The tourism also helps in reducing emigration from the rural areas, as it helps in generating employment. It also helps the local residents to improve their earnings and job prospects. Local residents of the country can also increase their influence on tourism (Lee & Tsung, 2013).

Revaluation of traditions and culture

Tourism also boosts the transmission and preservation of historical and cultural traditions of the host country, which most of the time helps in the sustainable management and conservation of natural resources. Tourism also helps in protecting the heritage of the local population. It also helps in renaissance of cultural arts, indigenous culture and crafts (Pernecky & Tomas, 2013).

Encourages civic pride and involvement:

Tourism also help in raising awareness among the local people about the financial value of the cultural and natural sites and also help in developing a feeling of pride in the national and local heritage and also encourages its conservation. Moreover the involvement of the host in the development and operation of tourism plays a vital role in the conservation and sustainable use of the environment (Pernecky & Tomas, 2013).

Facilities developed for tourism benefit the local residents

Tourism helps in the development of services and community facilities, which might not have been developed otherwise. Tourism can also improve the standard of living of the local community. There are several other benefits of tourism, which includes developed infrastructure, transportation, health and medical facilities etc (Pernecky & Tomas, 2013).

So, the above discussed points clearly highlight the positive impact of tourism in the socio-culture of Cologne in Germany.

Negative impact

Commodification:

Whenever there is reduction and sanitization of traditional ethnic rites, religious rituals and festivals to coordinate with the needs of the tourist, then tourism can covert local cultures into commodities. Once, a location is sold as a product of tourism, then tourism demands for arts, souvenirs, entertainment and other products, which starts exerting influence and may lead to changes in the values of human. The objects and sites which are scare may not be respected by the tourist (Fletcher et al, 2013).

Standardization:

Most of the times, standardization is risked by destinations in the process of satisfying the needs of the tourist. Moreover, accommodations, drinks and foods etc. also have to meet the desire of the tourist, which are new and unfamiliar with the host countries; at the same time they should not also be too strange or new because most of the tourists are searching for new experiences. There are many tourists who often keep looking for familiar facilities in an environment which is unfamiliar. For example they look for restaurants and fast-food chains (Fletcher et al, 2013).

Cultural clashes:

Because of tourism people from different geographic location moves to different geographic location and establishes social relation with the local people who would not have meet otherwise. Cultural clashes may take place due to the difference in ethnicity, cultures, religion, lifestyle, language, values and the prosperity level. This in turn may result in overexploitation of the cultural carrying capacity and social carrying capacity of the host country.

Cultural clashes may also occur due to the economic inequality. Different tourists come from societies that have different pattern of consumption and lifestyle compare to the host country. The tourists seek pleasure in the host country and spend lots of money and many a times they behave in such a manner that they would not accept the same thing in their home country. One more impact of tourism is that the local peoples, who come in contact with the tourist, may start copying the tourist, because they want to behave and live like the tourists.

Friction in the job level:

Considering the case of developing countries, there are many jobs that are occupied by the local people in the tourism industry. The local people are involved in jobs like waiters, housemaids, gardeners and other low paying jobs. Whereas, managerial and high paid jobs are offered to the foreigners and the people living in the urban areas (Wearing et al, 2013).

Increasing crime rates and prostitution:

With the rapid growth and urbanization of an area, the crime rates in the country also increases. The rapid increase in the tourism also foster crime rates in the host country. The tourist carries a lot of valuable things such as jewelleries and cameras; they also carry lot of money, which attracts the criminal and result in activities such as drug dealing and robbery.

It is evident from different studies that tourism also gives rise to child labor, because they are cheap and flexible. With the rapid development of tourism the commercial exploitation of young women and children has also increased. However, tourism is not the root cause of prostitution, but tourism provides easy access to prostitution. There are also many situations where the children are trafficked to the brothels, which are located near the tourist areas and they are sold into sex slavery. The earnings of such children are so low that it is not enough for them to escape (Fletcher et al, 2013).

So the above discussion clearly highlights the negative impact of tourism in the socio-culture of Cologne in Germany.

Recommendations

Certain recommendations for reducing the negative impact of tourism are put forth from the case study. The restriction on the number of tourists in specific areas needs to be curtailed. Because with the increasing number of tourist the local people of the city are losing their open space for the purpose of recreation. The government needs to increase the fee involved in tourism to curb the negative impact of tourism and also put a check on anti-social activities induced by tourism, because if the fee of the tourism increases it will reduce the number of tourist in the host country (Kim et al, 2015).

Eco tourism needs to be advocated to preserve the environmental conditions and also reduce social conflicts. Green tourism can be promoted to safeguard the cultural and historical diversity and initiate ethical approach. Proper allocation of job opportunities should be distributed to the local as well as the foreigners and proper job training needs to be provided. It will help in equal distribution of jobs and will improve the living standard of the local people in the host country. Local culture and traditional social beliefs and art and culture should be encouraged and promoted to enhance its importance and value. Preservation and upliftment of indigenous industries of the local community must be promoted. The government should take necessary step to hinder ethical issues; proper steps should be taken to control child trafficking and prostitution. The number of visitors should be limited in the scared natural and cultural sites. So, that the sentiments of the local people are not hurt (Sharpley, 2014).

The government should also conduct different programs that build the capacity on business skills and quality tourist service for the local providers of tourism service. The government should also conduct programs that raise awareness on conservation of nature and protection of environment. The government should also undertake teaching programs to promote sustainable agricultural, fishery and forestry techniques and practices. The government can also conduct environmental educational activities in the local schools and should develop specific programs for preserving the cultural heritage of the host country (Blancas et al, 2016).

Conclusion

The above report has clearly highlighted the social and cultural impact of tourism on the host countries. The report has also presents a cohesive depiction of the various influences of tourism on the host countries. The report has been conducted in the city of Cologne in Germany. It is a city comprising of rich heritage and depicts ancient architecture and heritage structures. Lastly the report has also recommended few steps that the government should take to promote sustainable tourism.

References

Andersson, T. D., & Lundberg, E. (2013). Commensurability and sustainability: Triple impact assessments of a tourism event. Tourism Management, 37, 99-109.

Blancas, F. J., Lozano-Oyola, M., Gonz?lez, M., & Caballero, R. (2016). Sustainable tourism composite indicators: a dynamic evaluation to manage changes in sustainability. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-22.

Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S. (2013). Tourism: principles and practice. Edinburgh Gate, UK: Pearson.

Fletcher, J., Fyall, A., Gilbert, D., & Wanhill, S. (2013). Tourism: principles and practice. Edinburgh Gate, UK: Pearson.

Kim, W., Jun, H. M., Walker, M., & Drane, D. (2015). Evaluating the perceived social impacts of hosting large-scale sport tourism events: Scale development and validation. Tourism Management, 48, 21-32.

L?ck, M., Gross, S., Richins, H., & Hull, J. S. (2015). Stamp books in the Harz Mountains, Germany–fun not just for children. Mountain tourism: Experiences, communities, environments and sustainable futures.

Mason, P. (2015). Tourism impacts, planning and management. Routledge.

Pernecky, T. (2013). Re-examining the ability of mass tourism to promote peace. CAUTHE 2013: Tourism and Global Change: On the Edge of Something Big, 604.

Sharpley, R. (2014). Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research. Tourism Management, 42, 37-49.

Wearing, S., & McGehee, N. G. (2013). Volunteer tourism: A review. Tourism Management, 38, 120-130.

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