When you are looking at an organization, we are looking at a system. We are looking at the context, nobody works in a vacuum. An organizational project or initiative starts from a context. There is a general view that an organization can be are regarded as healthy or unhealthy. It is important to review an organization initiative from a management point of view because it will evaluate what the organization is currently doing and to make improvement for future practice.This study will review a community-based venture called Phakama Youth Development starting with the organizational identity; the glue that keeps the organization together, understanding the context. The leadership and management skills required on the venture for success to be achieved in the community development initiative would be highlighted. There would be an overview of what leadership and management means. Finally, there are certain roles and responsibilities that are required for the achievement of the organizational goals. All these would be highlighted.
A REVIEW OF A COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BASED VENTURE
The review is based on Phakama Youth Development Projects (PYD), a fully registered non-profit organisation in KwaZulu-Natal. The essence of reviewing the initiative of PYD, is to know how organization is operating and if they are maintaining the expected service delivery required of them.
Background and context
PYD Projects and its staff believe that “the children belong to a society” and that “poverty is not a one-man war but a shared responsibility” where everyone play their part physically, spiritually, mentally and by contributing differently where he or she can (ngopulse, n.d). All their ventures are intended “to enhance the quality of life of the defenseless and helpless people and families but with the aim of prospering and releasing the skills from previously disadvantaged youths, (directly or indirectly) victimized adolescents and kids” (ngopulse, n.d).
Phakama’s Mission and vision
Formerly disadvantaged young people are helped by the formation of its mission and vision into three categories:“Cognitive Development – it falls into the skills development segment” (ngopulse, n.d).“Spiritual Development – this is attained by church events and services, motivational workshops and conferences” (ngopulse, n.d).“Physical Development – teachings of healthy living and providing food parcels by the organisation” (ngopulse, n.d).
Aims and objectives
National Framework Policy for the physically disabled youth and individuals with its Human Development Programme is the organization’s focus where it says, “let us first see to it that every disabled individual has access to mobility, basic nutrition, primary health care, social services, shelter and at least a certain level of education” (ngopulse, n.d).PYD’s mission is focused on the “development of local youth, targeting teenage mothers, orphaned and vulnerable children, unemployed and HIV/AIDs infected and affected individuals. The community hall is where the organisation runs its different projects” (ngopulse, n.d).
The management structure
Phakama consist of the following:Management CommitteeA Program Executive Director Administrative staffGeneral StaffVolunteersPhakama Youth Development Projects (PYD) is reviewed from the lens that the organization is a living system that is complex. From the physical level, PYD has people, vehicles, and of course furniture which are there assets; which are well managed. They have systems, procedures and structure in place. There entire administration is working normally. Every staff member has a working idea of what is expected of them. Staff are being paid as long as there are funders to all the projects that are embarked by the organization. Also, there are set roles and responsibilities which every member of the organization are aware of, including clarity in terms of job description.
Relationship in terms of people working as a team is supported here. The communication flow is good. Although, there are some conflicts existing in the system. The glue that keeps the organization together is the organizational identity which are the culture inherent in the organization, values and will (CDRA, n.d). At this level, the organization has a vision which everyone is working towards achieving. There is top-down approach here from the center. The management has tremendous control. At this point, the management might not reveal things to the rest of the members of the organization. So, communication is bad here. In terms of environment, every organization operates in a context. This final level has to do with the “social, economic, and political situation in which the organization functions” (CDRA, n.d). Phakama Youth Development operates in the local level here in South Africa.
THE RANGE OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS REQUIRED FOR THIS SPECIFIC COMMUNITY INITIATIVE
Distribute Responsibility Review
Management committee is actively involved in projects and delegate responsibility.The highest authority, the management committee (senior management) formulates plans and they take the responsibility for the execution; thus, responsibility is delegated downwards to the next level, which is the Program Director, which is a management position. The Program director has an assistant and administrative staff, including volunteers to assist. They are the operations team. Distribution of responsibility is a skill. Independence is key for strategic leaders to improve skills by performing day to day management. Organigrams in a company explains the level of authorities, from top management to the lowest skill level of employees, thus the responsibilities should be distributed correctly within a company. Senior management should correctly distribute responsibilities to other employees within the department reporting to them, by doing so, management will be able to see the outcome of the risk factor. This will increase intellect, adaptableness, and flexibility of the company, by allowing non-decision makers the opportunity to use their own initiative (Leitch, et al, 2016).
Communication skills Review
Communication skills not to standard, channels of communication not open.Instructions need to be communicated to members, managers must have effective communication skills.Listening. Being a good listener is one of the best ways to be a good communicator.Nonverbal Communication.Clarity and Concision.Friendliness.Confidence. Empathy. Open-Mindedness. Respect (Olenski, 2016).
Be Honest and Open about Information Review
Information sharing limited to management level.Information to subordinates is sometimes confidential and limited, this is required for a good organizational structure, however with limited knowledge and information members of the organisation will have a lack of confidence to challenge a leader and recommending a different idea from the idea that was initially decided from management (Leitch, et al., 2016).
Create Multiple Paths for Raising and Testing IdeasReview
Innovation is not encouraged.At present, not enough participation from other members in decision making takes place.Ideas can sometimes evolve into excellent strategic innovation, with the ability to add value to a company. Brainstorming sessions should be created to involve management and sometimes project members within the organisation to allow them the opportunity to share and discuss ideas, therefore opening up the more innovation and strategically leading to a higher level of sustainability. Most organisations will limit innovation to managers, this closes windows for growth and opportunity. Reverse mentoring can also be used, whereby new members can share their ideas and thoughts as part of teamwork sessions.
Make it Safe to FailReview: fear of failure
When project leaders fail, they should then be able to learn from their mistakes, the challenge is to empower, use the correct motivation and move away from negativity. Most members are too scared about failing hence not making decisions at all, thinking that they might jeopardize themselves or losing the support of management. Accepting failure and readiness to admit failure within the organisation. Leaders will have to identify failures in order to turn it into a success then recover from failures and instead be proactive.
Provide Access to other Strategies Review
Leaders are working in a vacuum.A vital part of a project is the interaction of management with potential leaders, to avoid isolation and setting a limit to innovation. Unique talents may be discovered amongst the stakeholders that tend to be overlooked.
Develop Opportunities for Experienced-Based Learning Review
Lack of development of members.Provision of in-house training will assist leadership development and is an inexpensive way to promote the skills of project members. Another strategy is a cross-functional direction to involve potential leaders with a collective assignment, creating a solution to a problem and then testing it within a small budget provision, after which an analysis is done to see whether the solution can be executed. Reality is their practice field.
Hire for Transformation Review
Professional expertise lackingManagers should take careful consideration and be selective before and when employing staff. When sourcing for employment one should focus on capabilities, experiences and diversity. Proper references should be conducted in terms of previous performances and should also be tested in real-life situations. Identify the ability of the applicant to be a potential leader and measure their strengths and weakness levels.
Commitment to project wellLeaders will have to make use of their won capabilities, interests, experiences, and passion for innovative ideas. Leaders and or managers are the mentors to the employees reporting to them. Leaders should take responsibility for their own actions and should be trusted amongst employees. Leaders must also have the capability to motivate employees and strive to do better.
Find time to reflect Review
No introspection Management should reflect on their goals and challenge themselves by asking questions; like: -What is the reason for the decision? -What are the implications? -What can be done differently in the future?By putting themselves to the challenge, they will find more clarity and inspiration with regards to forward thinking and being able to be competitive in the market. Being the owner of a company can sometimes become overwhelming and tend to make rational decisions. But if time is taking to reflect on decisions and sometimes mistakes, it can provide space to see what is done correctly
Recognize Leadership Development as ongoingReview
No internal developmentIt is important to realize that learning and development can never be enough. Management needs to make themselves vulnerable and admit not having answers to all the questions, and by taking this into consideration allow other people to be the skilled one in some situations.
OVERVIEW DESCRIPTION OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
A word on Leadership. The leader is usually responsible for inspiring people (some of the best-known leaders have charisma and influence the behaviour of people without much effort). The leader is a visionary, he/she can clearly see the end goal and his/her enthusiasm creates a positive atmosphere and people that come into contact with such a leader are captivated and gets excited about the end goal. Leadership is more motivating than the practical application (St. Thomas University, 2018).It is clear from the above descriptions that you need management skills to be objective and to monitor all the elements that contribute to moving towards the goal as well as anticipating challenges that would derail the movement towards the goal.
On the other hand, the manager cannot travel alone towards the goal, there are people that need to be led towards the goal. Application of leadership skills smooths the journey and assist in bringing the best out of others to act and produce above average without being coerced.Management skills coupled with strong leadership can go a long way to effectively run a successful organization. When you look at great leaders like Gandhi, Mandela, just to name a few, they had the charisma to captivate people into following them, but they also had great management skills, they had a purpose to succeed (Hissom, 2009).
The attributes of a good leader.Leaders often, but not always: – have a sense of drive, a mission- are fascinating – are able to have an impact on people to work together for a mutual cause- are strong-willed- using problem-solving skills to elevate better care and a constructive working environment (World Health Organization (WHO), 2008).A manager must have the skills and knowledge of management and leadership. A manager must also be a leader, but there is a difference between the two. The effective managers know how to balance the two skills. They are interdependent on each other In order to understand the difference and when to apply each, a clear definition of both needs to be defined
Definition of Management
Management is defined as a person appointed by an organization to utilize the resources (manpower, capital, assets, etc.) at his disposal to plan, organize and control such resources for the purpose of maximum results, for instance in a business, the maximum result can be profit, striving for world-class standards, etc. In other words, it is a skill that involves practicality, it also includes some type of measuring tool to monitor progress and to take remedial action when the end goal is out of sight (Thenmozhi, n.d).