From the last 25 years, there has been a lot of change in the business environment which has changed the way business is conducted. The technological modernization, and its regular improvement, and the advent of the internet have augmented the speed of globalization. It has fetched a grid of knowledge-based culture, which is inter-linked through online applications (Barnes, 2010). As with the significance of this varying business backgrounds on leadership are that there is a necessity to express the new requirements for the 21st century leadership.
This report will outline the critical literature review on the 21st century Leadership. It will summarize the leadership theories with the traditional theories and will contrast, compare and critically analyses the academic research on the topic of 21st century leadership.
The 21st century leadership definition can be sketched, as, collaboration procedure amongst the leader, the atmosphere and the admirers. It is now a procedure that contains the preparation of the apparitions due to assimilated situational information and combines admirers to conjointly accomplish these visualizations.
Numerous classifications, explanations, theories and definitions have been done by scholars and researchers about the leadership of 21st century. Substantial effort has been done in classifying and clarifying the diverse magnitudes of active leadership and thus producing a significant managerial research of leadership patterns and performances (Bush, 2012). Many examiners of leadership traits have established consent that the development of thinking over the years has created a certainty that leadership is an adaptable and accommodating development course (Burns, 2012). Literature about leadership exposes that concepts of leadership have been redefined and altered with the way of time and none of the concept is entirely unrelated (Davies, 2002). The 21st century type of leadership applied in the functions of organizations entails a high grade of accuracy, sensitivity, self-assurance level, care and practical expertise that is unlike from the traditional and simple management oriented portfolios.
According to Gilbert 2000, the understanding of leadership initiates with methodical supervision that outlines the progression of leadership philosophies through the superiority movement on the ethnic based, morals based, and trust-constructed relationship models. The author stated that people are spiritual by nature and leaders in the 21st century have to embrace a leadership style that has to be based on the traditional models beside with the emphasis on beliefs, communal, facility and religiousness (Guthrie and Callahan, 2016). Ciulla 2004 stated that respectable leadership has to be evaluated on two magnitudes, namely, ethically good and technologically effective. However, the problem is in finding the both qualities in the same person. The study of Ciulla stated that issue is not that the leaders should be held to high moral standard but they have to hold to the same standard with the rest of the staffs or people (Guthrie and Callahan, 2016). We usually hope that leaders who have a higher rate of success have high standards than the average person. An effective leader is one who is can bring the change in a positive way. With various examples that range from Machiavelli to Mahatma Gandhi, the study of Ciulla states that leadership requires a mixture of humility and confidence (Hill and Stephens, 2005). A good leadership is a call for the individuals who are confident enough to ask for help and can admit that they are wrong and can invite discussion and debate with their followers and superiors.
Leadership theory can be progressed from the philosophy that leaders are natural or designed by nature to be in their character at a specific time to a replication of convinced traits that predict a prospective for leadership (Davies, 2002). The maturity or group would control the most of the operational style of leadership. The established four styles of leadership that are of participating, selling, delegating and selling have the significance of the styles with the maturity level of subordinates. In the article, the challenges of leadership in the modern world 2007, author Bennis and Warren reflected on the modern tendencies in the leadership model and its present eminence and social background (Leadership for 21st century learning, 2013). The author has confidence in that a good leadership has emotional impact the condition of his or her follower’s lives. The article stated that leadership is eventually about the standards and every leader has a schedule, an ambition and determination to accomplish that ambition grounded on the basis of his or her standards (Leadership for 21st century learning, 2013). Thus principles are measure of the every framework of leadership. But according to Duggar 2009, people with truthfulness are demarcated as ones that can be considered as leaders (Leadership for 21st century learning, 2013). At the corporate levels, integrity is about leaders that have developed a corporate culture that provides consistency, trust and predictable results.
The leadership journey of every leader start with the understanding of their own life tales. Dependable leaders structure their tales in unique ways that permit them to see themselves not as impassive spectators but as persons who learns from the involvements. These leaders take a time to scrutinize their understandings and in doing so they grow themselves as a leader. The leadership growth for the 21st century is all-inclusive (Kelly, 2006). It is centered in collections or societies rather than persons that engage the group in emotion (O'Connell, 2014). From the 21st century point of view, leadership’s expansion changes from separate focused to share focused. It has changed from separate leadership growth platforms to leadership platforms that are entrenched in existing issues recognized by the contributors in the course. In the 21st century, the utmost effective leaders will struggle on supporting superior portrayal by bring into line the publics around work and ethics and bestowing leaders at all stages while having concentration on helping the consumers and cooperate with each other within and all the way through the establishments (Morrison, 2007). Leaders in the modern era have to achieve their intent for the organization with a strong focus on integrity, ethics that must be built on the foundation of values, all of which are necessary for long term success and corporate sustainability.
Leadership can be observed, as the separate and communal response to alter the world for improved. For the current challenging business situation, the knowledge of leadership approach is very much important for the unforeseen and unprecedented events (O'Connell, 2014). Leadership has become very important for today’s business due to its enormous complexity and accelerating change. The 21st century leadership is the viewpoint of leadership that aims to revert on the current business challenges and opportunities. With the long-drawn-out standard of leadership, it assimilates the concepts and customs from a widespread range of restraints and customs to substitute the applied acquaintance and transformative modification in the service of the world. The 21st century leadership is more than the activities, personalities and patterns of personalities (Penney, 2011). It is now viewed as the process in which everyone participates. The appearance of this viewpoint of leadership includes a full range of morals and adopts a variety of dimensions. The 21st century form of leadership has the capabilities and services which are endorsed in the various activities of life in framed ways. These embrace the perilous, inventive and structures thinking, communication, self-awareness and facilitation of the team and its combined procedures (Penney, 2011). For developing this view point of leadership, an overall orientation is necessary that must contain inward and outward alignment in including the person that is affianced in the system.
In 21st century, the prosperous leaders will emphasis on nourishing superiority presentation by assigning and by bringing people into line with mission and standards authorizing them at all stages while directed on helping the consumers (Leadership for 21st century learning, 2013). Customary leaders thought that they could explain the difficulty of aligning with rule books and training platforms but where shocked when people deviated. The 21st century leaders enable the leaders of all stages joined with cultured responsibility to safeguard that the assurances are met. To promote the value based leadership, 21st century leadership has to establish a leadership culture of integrity. This entails weaving values and ethics in decision making process and considering the interests not only for the stock holders but also for the stockholders of the industries (Slavkin, 2010). The 21st century leaders are proactively capturing the knowledge of traditional leadership theories in order to generate the visions. Organization in this century is exposed to the external dynamism. The only way to be competitive and sustainable in the current business environment is by remaining flexible on all levels of the organization.
In summary, the 21st century leadership can be described as the varied and integrative dimensional opinion of leadership that is grounded in associations. With shared views and objectives, leadership brings new ways of being, knowing and doing while acknowledging the development nature of human life. The 21st century leadership is focused on towards collective provision, the social upright and maintaining balance to individuals and environment. The study concluded that the 21st century leadership has the capabilities and services which are endorsed in the various activities of life in framed ways such as thinking, communication, self-awareness and facilitation of the team and its combined procedures.
Barnes, J. (2010). Extending traditional 21st-century leadership skills. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(4), pp.111-112.
Burns, J. (2012). Leadership. 1st ed. New York, NY: Open Road Integrated Media.
Bush, T. (2012). Leadership and Research in the 21st Century. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(4), pp.421-422.
Davies, A. (2002). Focus on Leadership—Servant-Leadership for the 21st Century. Long Range Planning, 35(4), pp.434-436.
Guthrie, K. and Callahan, K. (2016). Liberal Arts: Leadership Education in the 21st Century. New Directions for Higher Education, 2016(174), pp.21-33.
Hill, R. and Stephens, D. (2005). The Multiplicity of Selves and Selves Management: A Leadership Challenge for the 21st Century. Leadership, 1(1), pp.127-140.
Kelly, S. (2006). Leadership Refrains: Patterns of Leadership. Leadership, 2(2), pp.181-201.
Leadership for 21st century learning. (2013). 1st ed. Paris: OECD.
Morrison, A. (2007). Leadership diversity and leadership challenge. Leadership in Action, 12(3), pp.1-4.
O'Connell, P. (2014). A simplified framework for 21st century leader development. The Leadership Quarterly, 25(2), pp.183-203.
Penney, S. (2011). Voices of the future: Leadership for the 21st century. Journal of Leadership Studies, 5(3), pp.55-62.
Slavkin, H. (2010). Leadership for health care in the 21st Century: A personal perspective. Journal of Healthcare Leadership, p.35.