The influence of nature and nurture ona).Twin Studies
Twins can be of two types, Either identical or fraternal. Fraternal twins are likely to share 50% of genes similar to sibling born from different pregnancy whereas identical twins share 100% of same genes. The human blueprint is the DNA. It consists of genes that contains your gender, your eye color and hair color, and almost everything about you down to the smallest detail. This can be regarded as the effect of nature on them.
On the contrary, nurture refers to environment in which they are brought up which means it covers up all of their factors besides genetic factors. Therefore, it is wrong to ignore the effects of nurturing on twins. The environment plays a major role in a person’s development. Children grasp from whatever they observe around them, such as if they mainly experience violence, abuse, terror and nothing related to successful expectations, their chances for a bright future are reduced to a much greater extent right from the beginning.
As we can see in the case of Jack and Oscar, although both were twins yet they possess different qualities despite having same genes.This shows that environment also has a huge influence on twins. In a nutshell, it can be said that both factors have a very strong influence in their development. Both sociology and biology are very important when it comes to shaping who each of the twin will become. Hence nature and nurture cannot be pitted against each other since both contribute to their developmentb).
Feral ChildrenFeral children are human children who lived far from human contact. They might have faced severe abuse or mistreatment before their running away. They are children who are mostly raised by animals so they behave nothing like human children. They also develop characteristics similar to animals that raise them up such as they may have long hairs on skin to protect from cold, they may have trouble walking straight like normal humans. So, in their case it can be said that nurturing plays a greater role in their influence compared to nature.
As we can see in the case of Isabelle,despite being human she had quite diffferent characteristics than normal human beings. Her communication style,walking style and most of her natural instincts were quite the opposite compared to normal humans.This shows that nature also has a major influence on humans. Similarly feral children are brought up by such animals and they adapt their qualities as well. For instance, they learn their language, their walking style, their eating instinct and social skills from them. Even though they are children of humans yet they start resembling with those animals in some physical traits also such as long ears, tilted back, hairy skin, and resistance to extreme temperatures.The composition of every human consists of a mixture of traits. Some may be connected to genetics while others maybe linked to behaviors learned. However, in case of feral children, they prove to us that in order for a child to become like a typical human which is easily recognized in a normal society, his behavior and everything he learnt must resemble from his ancestors. Since feral children and have no language, no social mores, or literal skills, they prove that nurturing plays far greater role in their upbringing than nature.c). Institutionalized Children Many experts believe that children who are institutionalized typically have a lower IQ level as compared to children who are not. This is mainly because institutionalization is a risk factor for less optimal development of human brain. Almost all institutionalized children fall behind in the field of fine motor development, acquisition of speech, and socialization. Their physical growth is blunt. All of this is mainly due to nutritional insufficiencies caused by social deprivation.
Resultanly the brains are poorly developed so their intelligence is very low compared to other children.As we see in case of Skeels and Dye also.Experiment was performed in which it was found out that childen who stayed in orphanages had a lower IQ compared to children who were taken care of by nurses.This shows that children who received more social interaction had a greater IQ since they had a greater exposure compared to institutionalized children.It means nurture also has a great influence in case of institutionalized children.Hence proving that nurture plays a far greater role here.