The whole of the Indo subcontinent has never been a single nation it is so vast that in the past with slow and difficult communications it is Impossible for a single ruler to govern the whole of it even at the height of Mughal power under Aurangzeb the southern tip of the sub-continent was independent and in much of the rest of country except the northern local rulers had a great deal with freedom some vast areas paid taxes to the Mughal emperors and then more or less went their own way some like the Marathas and Sikhs were never really incorporated into the Mughal empire.
Although Britain directly ruled less than half of India by the 20th century she had advisers in the many states which were nominally independent by 1911 there were more than 560 of these states independent states ranging the from area of square kilometers to huge Hyderabad un the deccan with 212000 sq. km though most kept up the pretense that they were free they would be unlikely to do anything of which the British did not approve.
The road to independence
In the 1940s there were according to the official census 254,930,506 Hindus 65 percent 92,058,096 Muslims 24 percent and 11 percent of other religions – Sikhs Jains Parsees christens animists people who worship gods of the nature in India there were almost three Hindus to every Muslims in the sub-continent and though both could be found all cross India for historical reasons the Muslim people concerned in the north-west and north-east when belatedly the British began thinking of independence of the India in the sub-continent of one of the century in the India the Muslims majority finance defense and international relations with less important regional assemblies for more local affairs its was a politically and tidy solutions that would have worked in Canada or in south Africa where there could have been as originally English and Boer Dutch states the majority of black population in south Africa did not count of course.
In the second half of the 19th century when independence for India began to be discussed many of the leaders agreed with the British that when eventually it was free India would be single country you will be remembered that the Quaid himself was strongly in favor of the single nation until 1940.however the concept of Muslims identify had begun to be formed as early as the 18th century with the views of thinkers like Shah Waliullah 1703-1762 and Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi 1786-1831 The political and social developments in the subcontinent had influenced their thinking.
Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan (1817-98)
In the 19th century however one of the most influential Muslim figures was Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan. He was a brilliant man who did much to resolve the difference between the British and the Muslims after the war of independence he convinced the Muslims eventually that education was vital for them and set up Anglo-oriental college at Aligarh. Only through education he believed could they recapture the great glory of their past he discussed the situation with Hindu leaders and saw how determined they were to rake completely. Although Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan never the actually suggested two separate nations he did tell the British very forcefully that when political reform and independence eventually came the Muslims should receive separate considerations. His ideas did however suggest to latter politicians to later politicians and thinkers the possibly of two separate states.
Allama Mohammad Iqbal (1877-1938)
He is a scholar, philosopher, poet, and lawyer educated both in traditional as well as modern institutions of this time at home and abroad Iqbal was ranked foremost as an influential figure in modern muslin history.The political developments in the sub-continent with the rise of Hindu nationalism and muslins generally retreating to of Hindu nationalism compelled Iqbal to think of the causes. He expressed his thought in forcefully poetry to awaken the muslim sprit in 1930 the Muslims community of the sub-continent selected Allama Iqbal as the chairman of the muslim league conference in Allahabad in his presidential address at this conference Iqbal put forward the proposal for a separate muslim homeland Allama Iqbal also attended the round table conference in London in 1931 and 1932 in 1930 he published his famous series of essays on the Reconstruction of religious thought in Islam latter political developments confirmed Iqbla’s belief in the two-nations theory he proved to be guide and support to Mr. Jinnah who he saw as an active and effective leader of the muslims of in the sub-continent.
Choudhry Rehmat Ali (1897-1951)
He was a lawyer trained in Lahore and then at Cambridge university in England during his stay in England in 1930th he met the muslims leader from the sub-continent at the round table conferences. He tried to convince them to press for a independent muslim state. Though he did not meet with success he continued to write or never Choudhry Rehmat Ali proposed the name Pakistan based on the provinces its should encompass he also formed the Pakistan national movement to fight for his ideas which times were difficult to the muslim league to concept however in 1940 the all India muslim league acknowledged Choudhry Rehmat Ali effort by formally adopting his proposal for Pakistan a separate homeland for the muslims .Sadly due to differences of opinion he did not agree with the final map of Pakistan his contribution was not fully appreciated he died in England in Feburary 1951.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948)
As we have seen the for much of his life as a position and leader of the muslim league the Quaid Believed in one state for the Indian subcontinent with a kind of federal government which would give the muslims responsibility for the most things in the areas where they formed the bulk of the population but suddenly steadily he was driven to belief that this just would not work the hindus after independence would just take over all power congress had suggested that independence be obtained first and the muslims hindu problem stored out latter but Mr Jannah realized that once the british were not there to keep coming controlling hand on the situation the hindus would seize everything worthwhile so at the meeting of the all muslim league at Lahore in 1940 he put forward the goal of the separate Islamic state this was the end of the one nations plan the quide azam had a such power of the muslim population that the british would have to respect his proposal though the viceroy tired desperately until the final act of partition to keep in india united nation he did not really belive such that things it would be possible in august 1974 the two nation theory of muslim became reality.
The Ideology of Pakistan
Ideology is the name of given to a set of ideas and details and beliefs that are particular to a group of people and also guide them as such in their struggle for a separate nation or homeland the muslims of the subcontinent were guided by their ideology which helped them so too achieve their goal the name ideaology also helped at leaders of new nation to frame the subcontinent and laws and run the country accordingly. The realization that muslims should know as the assert their identity began slowely towards the end of Mughal empire their defeat in the war of independence in 1857 was a blow but it brought the muslims together persionalties began to emerge the who influenced tha muslims community as scholars thinkers and leaders within a century this is a common ideology that the muslims were united by religious and cultural identity and should have a apportunity to live the progress and according to their faith and teachings have a sense of direction and a mission to the muslims to achieve their goal in the ideology.
We have read about the two some of leaders and thinkers in this chapter and also their in many books here we shall briefly talk about how this ideology has shaped Pakistan as it is today the framework of the All India muslims league was in according with these ideals and belifs this was a common and strong platform for the muslims of the subcontinent.The fourteen points presented by Mr Jannah which were the basis of all future neoglaciations with the congress also embodied the basic wives of negotiations of the Muslims latter events confirmed by the Allama Iqbal and Quide Azam and other promenade leaders that the only solution to this problem was an independence country for the muslims in the subcontinentIndia and Pakistan (1947-1950)
More then 15 Million people were left the standard at the patriation in the wrong part of the land muslims in india hindus in Pakistan so began one of the biggest migrations in the history with muslims crossing over to the east and mainly west wings of the new country and hindus to india with emotions running high there were massacres on both sides although this was not meant to be Mr. Jannah had repeatedly emphasized the rights of the nation in minorities in Pakistan and Mr. Gandhi strongly prospected against the rioting of nation and killing.