The hague international model united nations 2011 | 23rd — 28th of january 2011 Essay

The Hague International Model United Nations 2011 | 23rd – 28th of January 2011

Al Khor International School Model United Nations[image: ]

5th One Day Conference April 20th 2019

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Forum:

General Assembly 2

Issue:

The Question of the US-China Trade War

Student Officer:

Maryam Arif

Position:

Deputy Head Chair

Introduction

The two largest economies worldwide have fortified themselves in an escalating trade war in the search for global influence and omnipotence. Historically, both countries have had an extremely extensive economic partnership and their relationship had been stable most notably during the Korean war (1950-1953) and the infamous Vietnam war (1955–1975). The US-China relationship has been described by world leaders and academics to be ‘The world’s most important bilateral relationship of the 21st century.’ In 2018, the US has been accentuated on having the world’s largest economy followed by China, which ironically has a higher GDP when measured in Purchasing power parity (PPP).

On the 6th of July 2018, Trump administration imposed heavy tariffs on $34 billion worth of Chinese goods such as medical devices, electronics, and aircraft parts. The Chinese goods will receive 25 percent border tax when they are imported into the US. The tenet behind this is to castigate China by making Chinese products more expensive so businesses and American consumers buy national products. This will, in return, weaken the Chinese economy. However, by assuming so, China immediately accused the US of starting the “the largest trade war in economic history to date.” Therefore, China responded by imposing 25 percent tariffs on $34 billion worth of American goods including items such as automobiles, soybeans, and lobsters.

Moreover, the US’s new trade barriers are designed to penalize China for actions such as: forcing and obliging foreign firms and organisations to hand over their most valued technology to Chinese companies – many of which are state owned - in exchange for access to their market. The US is also expected to implement border taxes on an additional $16 billion worth of Chinese goods and Donald Trump is willing to execute another $500 billion worth of Chinese goods depending on Chinese responses. In addition, the US is targeting high-tech and complex Chinese goods to put economic pressure on Beijing’s ‘Made in China 2025’ policy – a Chinese government initiative to modify China into an innovative manufacturing domination. On the other hand, China has deliberately targeted big US agricultural exports such as soybeans, that are placed in the heart of America, that increases job losses and financial instability.

Definition of Key Terms

Trade War

The term ‘Trade war’ refers to a conflict between two or more nations that impose trade tariffs on each other. This type of conflict usually develops when the nations involved are trying to improve and protect their own economies. Trade wars have the potential of increasing the costs of certain imports if the nations involved refuse to make a negotiation.

Protectionism

This refers to the actions of the government to help shield its developing domestic industries by taxing goods from abroad to avoid foreign competition. It is a governmental policy used mainly to protect fragile economies that could either be weak or critical. All countries practice a form of protectionism in one form or another without going to any extremes.

Tariff

A tariff is a tax put on imported or exported goods between self-governing states. These are usually implemented to protect certain industries that are perceived to be essential or that hold strong political influence. Making an import more expensive can improve the economics of producing that product domestically.

Trade

This is the basic concept of economics that encompasses the buying and selling of goods and services. It is a commercial transaction and is needed to prosper growth and improve the welfare of a country.

Tax

This is a compulsory action globally that occurs when people contribute a sum of money to the states revenue through work incomes or are added to the price of goods and services.

Background Information

The US-China relationship has been subjected to hegemonic rivalry in the pacific, economic cooperation and mutual tensions over other countries intentions. Previously both countries adopted a wary attitude in which they regarded one another as a latent adversary whilst also a resilient economic

associate. Currently, both China and the US have mutual economic, security and political interests, including but not limited to the: proliferation of nuclear weapons, though there are unresolved concerns relating to human rights in both respective countries as well as the role of democracy in the Chinese government.

Although, China is the major largest foreign creditor of the US, the two countries endure in dispute over territorial issues including the Spratly Islands located in the South China Sea. This was due to China claiming sovereignty of this area on the 23rd of January 2017 which ultimately led Sean Spicer, a Whitehouse spokesman, on saying “it’s a question of if those islands are in fact international waters and not part of china proper, then yeah, we’re going to make sure that we defend international territories from being taken over by one country.” Recently the tensions have also been increasing due to the crisis in the Senkaku islands that was catalysed by the Chinese takeover. The US, under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, had to defend Japan allowing Donald Trump to reiterate the US commitments to the status quo ‘One-China’ policy. However, President Xi Jinping reiterated before President Trump stating that “the US-China relations have made great progress in recent days, but they have been affected by some negative factors.” To elaborate on this a Chinese government spokesman, named Geng Shuang, explained that by “negative factors” the Chinese were taking about how “under the pretext of navigational freedom, the American side once again sent military vessels into the Chinese territorial waters of Xisha islands. It has violated Chinese and international law…disrupted order, peace and security of the relevant waters and put in jeopardy facilities…it is a serious pollical and military provocation…” President Trump visited Beijing on the 8th of November 2017 for what was emphasized to be a meeting regarding the de-nuclearization on the Korean peninsula in addition to the stabilization of US-China relations. In this, the US reaffirmed its support for the “One-China” policy. However, the ships of the US navy can call at the ports of Taiwan according to the latest US National Security Act from 18 December 2017 which breaks the “One-China” policy. Therefore, on the 1st of April, China enforced punitive tariffs on American goods that are of 128 different categories in retaliation for Trump Administrations national security levies on steel and aluminium imports the previous month. This effected the US in terms of $3 million in annual trade or about 2 percent US goods exports to China. The Trump Administration responded by placing tariffs (25 percent increase) on $250 billion worth of Chinese goods, to equipoise the trade imbalance between the two respective countries.

Sub-heading here and only capitalise first word

Sub-headings must be in Arial size 11, bold, and in this colour. You may continue writing text in the same format as the rest of the document. Please remember that the beginning of each paragraph must be indented.

Sub-sub heading

Title must be in Arial size 11, bold and italicized, and in this colour. Please indent the title, as well as all of the text. Spacing must remain same as throughout the document. Also, every picture incorporated in the report must contain captions. The captions can be brief descriptions of the content and relevance of the picture (preferably not more than a sentence long). You must put all captions in Tahoma size 9, bold and italicized.

Major Countries and Organizations Involved

China

Name of country or organization must be in Arial size 11, bold, and in ‘automatic’ font colour. You may continue writing text in the same format as the rest of the document. Please remember that the beginning of each paragraph must be indented. Also, if you want to use any abbreviations, write it out in full when you first use the word in your Report and include the abbreviation in round parenthesis, and then you can use the abbreviation throughout the document. For example: “The United Nations Development Fund (UNDP) is the UN’s global development network. UNDP is a solution oriented, knowledge based development organisation, supporting countries to reach their own development objectives and internationally agreed goals”.

US

Continue listing the relevant countries and organizations.

Timeline of Events

Relevant UN Treaties and Events

Please do use British spelling throughout your Research Report. When listing past UN Resolutions, it is suggested that you make use of bullet points and the specified format below:

· Name of the Resolution, Date of the Resolution (Resolution Number)

· Declaration on the Critical Economic Situation in Africa, 3 December 1984 (A/RES/39/29)

· Note that bullet points must be in this color

Previous Attempts to solve the Issue

In case that there have been previous attempts to solve the issue at hand, please state and evaluate them shortly.

Possible Solutions

You may list the possible solutions and explanations in the same form that the body of the report is to be written. The beginning of each paragraph must be indented. It is strongly recommended that you include strong and viable possible solutions because this is what will induce good ideas and resolutions from delegates. Don’t be afraid to be original or creative in listing and explaining these possible solutions. You may analyse this possible solutions together with explanations. You may use the Styles buttons as they have been modified to fit with what you are typing.

Bibliography

All citations must be in MLA format. You may use www.noodletools.com or www.easybib.com to create your bibliography. Please ensure that all entries in this section are ‘left-justified’ – as this paragraph is set out. Also, any websites cited must be in hyperlinks (you must be able to click on them in this document to refer to the website).

Appendix or Appendices

Please include any materials that you may wish to Appendix in this section. Also, Roman numerals must be used in labelling the different appendices. It is highly recommended that any useful links be placed in this section. Briefly state what this Appendix is about. Use easybib.com for the MLA format

I. http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Gender-chapters1-3.pdf/ (United Nations Millennium Development Goal Document about Gender Equality)

This website shows a brief history, statistics and discussion about promotion gender equality to achieve sustainable development from the perspective of United Nations. Furthermore, it also offers present and additional solutions to reduce gender inequality.

II. http://libraryresources.unog.ch/content.php?pid=426353&sid=3486844/ (United Nations Office at Geneva Library)

This website gives the links to the previous UN treaties to encourage empowerment of women and gender equality.

https://www.vox.com/world/2018/7/6/17542482/china-trump-trade-war-tariffs

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China%E2%80%93United_States_relations

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/protectionism

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/trade-war.html

https://www.dictionary.com/browse/protectionism

http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/trade-war.html

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