Agriculture being the major livelihood activity exists with limitation in terms of land availability for cultivation and decreasing productivity, this limitation manifolds with for increasing in population demand for housing and industrial needs. Entrepreneurship paves the way for meeting the livelihood of growing population.
The Entrepreneurship Rural development is currently, more than ever before linked to entrepreneurship. Institutions and individuals promoting rural development now see entrepreneurship as a strategic development intervention that could accelerate the rural development process. Further, more institutions and individuals seem to agree on the urgent need to promote rural enterprises; development agencies look into rural entrepreneurship as an enormous employment potential; politicians take it as the key strategy to prevent rural unrest; farmers make it as an instrument for improving farm earnings and women see it is an employment possibility near their homes which provide autonomy, independence and reduced need for social support. To all these groups, however, entrepreneurship acts as a vehicle to improve the quality of life for individuals, families and communities to sustain a healthy economy and environment
Current situation at national and international level
Twentieth century focus is based on the inclusive growth. Most of the developing nations have learnt form the past that inclusive growth is the only means to reduce poverty. Inclusive growth at macro and micro level aims to reach the disadvantaged sections of the community. The gender disparity hinders growth, women also contributing equally in livelihood generation at micro level and they have equal population at macro level. The World Bank and Asian Development Bank and most of other international agencies initiated Micro finance and group loans specifically to empower women. These prudent financial assistance through micro and crop loans are not only to meet the immediate financial needs of the family but also to encourage nonfarm activities through micro entrepreneurships. The goal is not only to improve standard of living but also to improve dignity in living. Today learning the role of women and their contribution to livelihood remains primary focus irrespective of any rural developmental study. All international agencies are looking at empowering women would be the holistic solution in inclusive development.
India being the developing country with diversified population and natural resources has emerging challenges of food security, poverty and other socio economic factors governing growth. The 2011 census of India details the population of India is 1,21,01,93,422 with total male population of 62,37,24,248 and female population of 58,64,69,174. Women contribute 48% to total Indian population. The Rural population of India is 83,30,87,662 which is 68.84% still residing in villages demanding more focus of development. 69.09% rural women i.e. 40,51,70,610 contribute to Indian women population this shows only 29.01% of women are urbanized and nearly 70% needs intense empowerment interventions.
Importance of topic
With the growing population coupled with depletion of land fertility and increased expansion of waste lands has limited the growth of Indian farm sector. The gambling with rains and market prices has provoked farming community to push it on last priority. Uncertainty of economic development under the influence of various trade factors has posed new challenges in sustainable development of farming community. As an alternative, Government of India has introduced diversified programs to encourage non-farm sector activities to rural community and other population involved in farming sector. The goal is to attain sustainable development and to meet the livelihood.
Most of the nonfarm activities demand entrepreneurial abilities. The programs introduced to reach the disadvantaged groups can be fruitful only through understanding of the entrepreneurial abilities of deprived communities. Empowering women to undertake micro enterprises will secure livelihood. Women inclusion and empowerment in nonfarm sector particularly in micro entrepreneurship is dreamed to enhance the development with respect to time. The above topic is selected with critical understanding of the role of women in holistic inclusive development. The women in the deprived sections often prone to drudgery and deprived from opportunities. To explore new horizons of livelihood and empower women, this research will attempt to know the entrepreneurial abilities of the rural unprivileged SC and ST women’s. The SC ST population of India as described by Ministry of Home affairs in Census of India 2011 shows that, out of total population 1028737436 there are 166635700 SC and 84326240 ST in India which contribute 16.2% and 8.2% respectively. In Karnataka the total SC population according to provisional census 2011 of Karnataka is 6701169 which shares 18.45% of total Karnataka population, where 50.6% i.e. 2269723 is the total male and 49.3% i.e. 2215409 are women. The total ST population 1983533 i.e., 8.16% to total Karnataka population, this includes 50.6% male population i.e. 1004570 and 49.3% female i.e. 978963 female population.
With the above we can make that total SC & ST female population of Karnataka is 3194372 which accounts to 26.5% of total female population.