As time passed, it became more and more apparent your problemsof the South are not being fixed by harsh laws and continuingrancor against former Confederates. In May 1872, Congress passedageneral Amnesty Act, restoring full political rights to any or all butabout 500 Confederate sympathizers.

Gradually Southern states began electing members of theDemocratic Party into office, ousting so-called carpetbaggergovernments and intimidating blacks from voting or attempting tohold publicoffice. By 1876 the Republicans stayed in power in mere threeSouthern states. As part of the bargaining that resolved thedisputed presidential elections that year in favor of RutherfordB. Hayes,the Republicans promised to finish Radical Reconstruction, therebyleaving all of the Southern in the possession of associated with the Democratic Party.In 1877Hayes withdrew the rest of the federal government troops, tacitlyabandoningfederal obligation for enforcing blacks' civil legal rights.

The South ended up being still a region devastated by war, strained by debtcaused by misgovernment, and demoralized by 10 years of racialwarfare. Unfortuitously, the pendulum of nationwide racial policyswung in one extreme to the other. Whereas previously it hadsupportedharsh penalties against Southern white leaders, it now toleratednewand embarrassing forms of discrimination against blacks. The lastquarter of nineteenth century saw a profusion of «Jim Crow» regulations inSouthern states that segregated public schools, forbade orlimited blackaccess to numerous public facilities, such as for example areas, restaurants andhotels,and denied many blacks the proper to vote by imposing poll taxesand arbitrary literacy tests.

In comparison with the moral quality and high drama regarding the CivilWar, historians have tended to judge Reconstruction harshly, as amurky amount of political conflict, corruption and regression.Slaveswere provided their freedom, yet not equality. The Northcompletelyfailed to handle the economic requirements of the freedmen. Effortssuch asthe Freedmen's Bureau proved insufficient to your hopeless requirements offormer slaves for institutions which could provide them withpoliticaland economic opportunity, or simply just protect them from violenceand intimidation. Certainly, federal Army officers and agents of theFreedmen's Bureau had been often racists by themselves. Blacks weredependent on these north whites to guard them from whiteSoutherners, who, united into companies including the Ku KluxKlan, intimidated blacks and prevented them from working out theirrights. Without financial sources of their own, numerous Southernblackswere forced to be tenant farmers on land owned by theirformermasters, caught in a cycle of poverty that could continue wellinto the20th century.

Reconstruction-era governments did make genuine gains inrebuilding Southern states devastated by the war, and inexpanding general public solutions, notably in developing tax-supported,free publicschools for blacks and whites. But recalcitrant Southernersseizedupon cases of corruption (scarcely unique south in thisera)and exploited them to create straight down radical regimes. The failure ofReconstruction designed your struggle of African Us citizens forequality and freedom had been deferred before the twentieth century — whenit would be a national, and never a Southern issue.

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