There are a lot of causes which rupture the community. As mentioned above, community is no more community when there is no safety and understanding one another. Hence, any condition or situation that is barrier to community from having safety and understanding among individuals and groups. The sense of community may be taken away by various forces such as armed conflicts, serious epidemic, religious conflicts, racialism and etc. Here the author depicts the condition of communities in India Gujarat post-Gujarat 2002. Violence between Hindus and Muslims is a structural given of Indian society. One finds its traces very early in the country’s history, a fact that can drive the analyst to explain the phenomenon by referring to the incompatibility of Hindu and Muslim cultures. That is why it is not to say that Gujarat 2002 riot is not just a new problem emergence. There are a lot of looming forces explode the riot in Gujarat 2002.
The 2002 Gujarat riots, also known as the 2002 Gujarat violence and the Gujarat pogrom, was a three-day period of inter-communal violence in the western Indian state of Gujarat. Many news and reports will say it is a three-day period of inter-communal violence but it is not just a three-day period of riots, it actually has already begun in the history. The author says that it is a genuine reaction of one thousand years of silent sufferings of the majority which implies Arab conquest of India in 712 AD and the subsequent Islamic rule. Therefore the author says that contemporary discussion on inter-community relations in India can never be comprehensive without taking certain landmarks, seen through momentous ruptures in the forms and nature of dialogue between communities. According to this statement, the conflict in Gujarat 2002 is a consequence or a series of the long history in the past. It is like a timing-bomb ready to explode. Anyway the author focuses on the condition of community post Gujarat 2002 riots. The riots in Gujarat left a lot of bad consequences not only in its region but also outside of Gujarat. It had impact on all individuals and community where people stop believing in others, understanding one another and safety is stolen by the conflict. There forms delineation of borders and boundaries as impact. Everything starts being chaos and sense of community is no more alive. However it is important to know that the riots in Gujarat are not the sole reason for splitting community. Therefore the author says that contemporary discussion on inter-community relations in India can never be comprehensive without taking certain landmarks, seen through momentous ruptures in the forms and nature of dialogue between communities. So in this article, the author discusses the factors to understand the chaotic community in split society. The two perspectives towards the problem discussed here are as below.
Identity and memory
The author writes that while mapping the contours of the community, it is imperative to locate and delve into the issues of memory and history besides identity at the local level. I think this sound subjective because it can help understand the community by looking not only at the present buts also the past and it goes beyond the limit of local identity. Usually what happens to now is the consequence of the past. If we closely look at the case in Gujarat 2002, it will be clearly seen that there were hate and distrust rooted between different communities since long ago. What happened in the past remains in the memory and appears when it becomes bigger like a big bang because memory is about what we remember and it always goes with feelings and emotions. The author says that memory is an interdependent process of remembering and forgetting and remembering is often immersed with emotion. Here the emotion may be sorts of feeling pain from discrimination, abuses and traumatic experiences. Sometimes, although there are no such things, the people in community can have such feelings because of the memory they keep from the past. It is cited that hence memories, like dreams, are highly condensed symbols of hidden preoccupations. When there are bad memories in different communities, for sure there will be explosion of memories between communities and that will hurt all individuals and communities. That is why it is crucial to study the memories of split communities to better know of the story behind the scenes. Memory usually is closely related to identity. Sometimes one’s identity can be defined by his or her memory. What he did, saw and experienced are kept in memory and they reflect again in the present of self and the present self is a picture of who you were and what you did in the past. Therefore the author states that identities are portrayal of the self as also attributes projected on to others. They also indicate not only who we are but what others think of who we are. Identity includes not only who you are but also what you value. Thus, one of the major factors of splitting communities may be because of memory and identity of those communities.
Prejudices and stereotypes
Prejudices and stereotypes are merely cared by most community organizers. So they remain silent and cause the conflicts between the different communities. Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person’s group membership. The word is often used to refer to preconceived, usually unfavorable feelings towards people or a person because of their sex, gender, beliefs, values, social class, age, disability, religion, sexuality, race or ethnicity, language, nationality, beauty, occupation, education, criminality, or other personal characteristics. On the other hand, it is about ‘them and us’. Basically it is the about the way we perceive ourselves and the way we perceive others.