In the past decade, security has emerged as an essential component of national and international policy in conflict – impacted society. SSR has its origins with peace – building participations and it is designed to perform the development and security. It is critical to address the conflicts and establish the democratic accountability.
Security sector reform has come a long way since it has emerged on the international security and policy development. This model is a mainstay in policy building and the main innovation of the SSR model is to focus on its governance. The effectiveness and professionalism of the security is not only measured by the security forces and its ability but also it helps to identify the forces that cannot perform their responsibilities effectively. (Gartland, 2015)
The objective of SSR is to help the government of developing the countries completing their legitimate security functions through reforms that will deliver the security in an effective manner. It is designed to support the country specific conflict prevention programs and it is done by proper guidance on SSR policy between strategies. The major instruments of this strategy are military education courses, courses funded under defense.
Security reform is a relative new and evolving concept that supports the countries to recognize security sector reforms such as to adopt a broad definition of the security sector, to understand the benefits of varying degrees from SSR and to build the capacity to assist reforming countries and to develop their own frameworks. (Beijing, 2002)
Over the last decade, the losses to countries emerge from conflict and it has focused its attention on state security sectors. Thus, the UN, the World Bank have increasingly concerned with promoting security sector reform. The international community responds in a more integrated approach to deal with security issues and security reform is a part of an attempt to handle disorder and violence. Security sector reform aims to help states increase the security domain based on mechanisms that increases transparency and accountability. It is an essential element of the effort to increase governance. It aims and helps to understand the importance of governance issues and to deal with policy making. (Chanaa, 2002)
Security sector reform also has wide range of implications for dealing with the establishments on security and development assistance. The implications only states to provide security assistance and the response of states to the 11th September terrorist attacks on the USA might delay the growth of the security sector reform agenda. Increase in its importance is being placed on development of cooperation and intelligence services. There is a risk that security sector reform will become subordinate to different anti-terrorism activities in countries with respect to the development of the cooperation.
With respect to SSR, there could have participation of civil society and international community. It takes a long term view and develops a critical mass for reform and supports the development of national strategies of security. This motivates local ownership and ensures that the process of reform is consultative with respect to the support of capacity to governance reform. (Tadesse, 2007)
Beijing, S. 2002. Chapter 4: The challenges of security sector reform. Stockholm international peace research institute.
Chanaa, J. 2002. Security sector reform: Issues challenges and prospects. The international security sector advisory team.
Gartland, J. 2015. Comparing the EU’s declaratory and operational foreign policies: The case of the EU’s security sector reform mission in Guinea Bissau.
Tadesse, M. 2007. Chapter 5: Overcoming challenges for security sector reform in the horn of Africa. ISS Africa.