The geographical setting, location
Vietnam is located on the eastern margin of the Indochinese peninsula. The total area of Vietnam is 331210 square kilometers which are consisted 310",070 square kilometers of land and 21",140 square kilometers water. Moreover, the twenty-five percent of the territory was under cultivation in 1987.
There were some territorial issues remain between China and Vietnam, such as the South China Sea. Paracel Islands was claimed by both countries in a dispute left unresolved in the 1980s.
Climate and Topography.
The shape of Vietnam on the map is like the letter ’S’, the distance between north to south is 1",650 kilometers and the narrowest point is about 50 kilometers width. According to the library, Vietnam is a country of tropical lowlands, hills, and densely forested highlands, with level land covering no more than 20% of the area. The country consists of the highlands and the Red River Delta in the north.
Furthermore, because of the location in the tropics and the strong influence of the South China Sea, the climate is different from the south and north of Vietnam. In the north, the climate is monsoonal with four distinct seasons (Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter), while in the south, the climate is tropical monsoon with two seasons (rainy and dry). There are seven different climatic regions in Vietnam which are based on time of the rainy season and other climatic elements such as insolation, sunshine, temperature, precipitation, and humidity.
Population and Demography
Total population, Recent Trend, Declining or Increasing.
The total population of Vietnam is 34.74 million in 1960 and 95.54 million in 2017, it keeps showing an increasing amount with the population. An estimate puts the Vietnam population in 2018 at 96.49 million which would make the country the 14th most populous on the planet. Actually, the increasing trend from 1989 to 1999 was declined because many Vietnamese families limited the number of their children to two. During the 1999s the population growth rate had a sharp decline, according to Phuong Thi Thu Huong(Feb 7, 2003), from nearly 2 percent at that beginning of the decade to 1.4 percent by 2000.
Is population a burden or strength for the country?
The population density has always been a concern in Vietnam. With a huge population density in the limited region, the resources could be more scarce for each person.
Distribution of population regarding Age and Sex.
The youngest people usually occupy the widest bars of the pyramid, especially in1979, there is a very young age distribution. According to Carl Haub(Feb 7, 2003), the youngest age groups of zero to fourteen years, accounted for forty-three percent of the population. In 2000, despite the youngest age group had dropped to thirty-two percent, still a comparatively young population. Moreover, the age structure can slower the future population growth as the more number of younger people, the less number of potential parents.
Migration rates and patterns.
Because of the rapid urbanization and economic growth of Vietnam, the population distribution shifted from rural to urban areas. There has been a consistent net flow of migrants from the northern parts of the country to the southern, and there are four areas of Vietnam have an attraction to migrants: the urban places of Ho Chi Minh City, Central Highlands region, Hanoi and Da Nang.