Mastery style instruction is a type of instruction that focuses on repetition and memorization. When using this method, it is important to hone in on increasing a student’s ability to “remember and summarize” the information in order to increase their competence on the subject matter. This method is best used when learning “practical information and procedures” such as multiplication or classroom rules. Students who learn through the mastery style of instruction typically are sufficient at math and benefit from practicing the material repetitively and receiving feedback. (Silver et al., 2009, 4-7)
Understanding style instruction is a type of instruction that strives to deepen a student’s understanding of the subject matter by using “evidence and logic”. When using this method, it is essential to encourage students to inquire about the material so that they build their own understanding of the content. For example, when teaching a thematic unit on the beach, have students develop their own questions they want to know the answer to (ex. What are seashells?) and have them research it. Doing so effectively will create a very individual understanding of the content, specific to each child, so students can discuss their findings together, employing another effective method called “The Jigsaw Classroom”. Students who employ this learning style typically enjoy “inquiry, independent study, and making arguments” and are sufficient at explaining their findings. (Silver et al., 2009, 4-7)
The self-expressive style of instruction is a type of instruction that encourages creativity and individuality when learning the subject matter. This method highlights each student’s own ability to “imagine and create” and leans on the “what-if’s” left in the learning material to foster each student’s unique understanding of the material. For example, having students write a diary entry as if they were Anne Frank and accompany the entry with a picture of what they think her living space looked like. Completing this activity will require students to figuratively step into Anne’s shoes and use their imagination, along with the descriptions they’ve read, to create her living space. Students who learn through the self-expressive style of instruction enjoy using “their imaginations to explore ideas” and typically right-brained creative thinkers who love expressing themselves and their original ideas. (Silver et al., 2009, 4-7)
The interpersonal style of instruction is a type of instruction that seeks to create a understanding of the subject matter through building classroom relationships. An effective way to use this method is by encouraging teamwork through team building exercises. For example, dividing the classroom into groups and giving them spaghetti noodles and a marshmallow and tasking each group to build the tallest free-standing structure. The goal is not for each group to compete to build the tallest structure, but instead to build community in the classroom. Students who learn through the interpersonal style of instruction typically enjoy group work and “cooperative learning activities” and learn best when the teacher acknowledges their “successes and struggles”. (Silver et al., 2009, 4-7)All information for this section of the exam whether quoted, summarized, or put into my own words was gathered from the textbook cited here: (Silver et al., 2009, 4-7).
What contributions did each of the following people make in terms of strategy development?
Carl Jung contributed to strategy development through his work and theory on personality and learning styles. He asserted that individuals learn best through different instruction methods depending on their personality (extroversion vs. introversion, thinking vs. feeling, etc.). His theory on personality types eventually led to the development of the widely used Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. (Silver et al., 2009, 6)
Kathleen Briggs and Isabel Myers
Kathleen Briggs and Isabel Myers built on Carl Jung’s theory of personality types to develop a now-famous assessment that indicates how an individual’s personality type affects their learning styles. This cognitive assessment is called the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and can be used by educators to assess student’s personality types. Educators can use these results to adjust instruction for each individual child depending on their personality. (Silver et al., 2009, 6)