The Adolescent Age: Cognitive Development Essay


Discuss about the The Adolescent Age for Cognitive Development.



Adolescence is an age that brings with it numerous growths that are accompanied by a lot of transforms. This degree of difference growth may guide to an inequity in power by sub cortical region above prefrontal ones in addition to discriminating poignant reactivity. The huge unpredictability pragmatic in the widen studies of sentiment instruction may in fraction due to discrepancy in personage ecological and heritable backdrop. Many psychologists have tried to enlighten these transform so that better understanding of their situations can be done. All this shall help the people around in formulating ideas for them. Also, it lends a hand to the medical staff in dealing with the adolescent patients for better results.

The Adolescent Age

The adolescence age is associated with some developments which can be broadly divided into three categories, namely, physical alterations, socio-cultural transform and the cognitive development. Physical changes include the onset of puberty, socio-cultural changes consist of dealing with culture and others, and cognitive development comprises of the intellect behavior. Various theorists have come forward and proposed their theories regarding the changes in the adolescent age. Out of them was Jean Piaget who had put forward a theory regarding the Cognitive Development. Out of the four stages described by him, he placed adolescent children in the Concrete Operational Phase (Trevelyan Burman, 2011). In this phase, intellect is established through rational and methodical handling of cryptogram connected to actual objects. The Operational thoughts tend to develop and the egocentric thinking shrinks. Another theory describing the socio-cultural changes was given by Erick Erikson. He said that the people's intellect of who they are unfurls all the way through their life and is determined by their fight amid their own internally distinct selves that are clear, long-established, or else denied by others(Erikson, 2013). The steady conciliation among these two selves outlines who an individual is as well as who he/ she will turn into.

A major phase faced by the adolescent are the various transitions. These life transitions play a vital role in building their personality. One of the major life transitions occurring at this point in life is the understanding of his/her personality and the society around (Weeks, Ooi, & Coplan, 2015). Erick Erikson, a theorist who through his work has been exceptionally dominant on understanding the adolescent’s identity. He argued that the founding of a reasoned intellect of individuality is the principal psychosocial chore of adolescence. He also said that during the adolescent age the adolescent is inflicted with a major issue regarding the war between ego identity and role confusion. Erikson alleged that the problem is instinctive in identity building in the contemporary society and have produced the want for a psychosocial cessation—a breakthrough for the adolescence from the types of unwarranted errands and responsibility that may confine the adolescent person's search of self-finding. For the period of the psychosocial cessation, the pubescent can research with dissimilar job and distinctiveness, in a framework that authorizes and supports this reasonable searching. The testing engages in trying on diverse traits and habits of performing. Sometimes, parents express their adolescent children as departing through a “phase” (Korostelina, 2014). A great deal of this conduct is, in fact, trialing with job and behavior.

Another aspect associated with adolescents is the self-esteem, which in general is the self-assessment that one builds of oneself. It can fluctuate all through the life – predominantly all through chief life alterations. It’s no wonder then that during the changes and challenges of adolescence there can be significant fluctuations in an adolescent’s assessment of their personal self-image as well as/or of their self-worth (McPhie & Rawana, 2015). It is anticipated that almost a half of youngsters struggle in the midst of little self-esteem (Wollenhaupt, Rodgers, & Sawin, 2011). However calculating and assessing self-esteem is far-off from an accurate science and moreover as with numerous fields of study, there is an abundance of conflicting studies as well as findings. Even though studies might demonstrate self-esteem level to drop down yet it doesn’t for eternity signify that they turn out to be negatively low; they presently are lesser than earlier levels. The basic factors that lead to low esteem among the adolescents are namely, life transitions, appearance, social stability and the so called boy- girl disparity (Cribb & Haase, 2016). The adolescents feel that good looks tend to provide high social ability among either sex and if they don’t look beautiful outside tend to inflect them with low esteem (Sinclair & Carlsson, 2013). Such issues can be resolved with proper guidance from the elders and let them free in the society so that they can themselves understand prospects and augment their self-esteem.

An individual’s self concept comprises of a compilation of viewpoints about oneself that consists of fundamentals for instance educational performance, sexual category roles, sexuality, and ethnic identity. It is apparent as of self-awareness, which submits to the amount to which self-information is definite, reliable, and at present valid to one's approach in addition to temperament. A teen in the adolescence period is still in the process of construction of self-concept. Self-concept plays a vital role in the character construction. The factors affecting the self-concept are namely, relationships, family, culture, abuse, gender and appearance. The family plays a key role in building one's character and nature. If the adolescent has seen abuses and stress in a family, his relationships will automatically be in a lot of vain. This shall create a negative impact on his building self-concept. Moreover, if the abuses are gender-centric then it shall create disinclination towards that gender and a sense of dominance could also occur if one gender is dominant. Some cultural aspects also attribute in self-concept building. Some cultures have an inclination towards the male and treat them as superiors towards their female counterparts. This tends to make the adolescent central over the females if he is male and feel deprived if she is a female.

Nursing of adolescents is one the most difficult tasks to handle. Since the adolescent children are not kids and not even adults so treating them needs an all different approach. The needs and demands of them are very different that too vary with different teenagers. Their bodies are developing at an alarming rate inducing them with a gush of hormones that make them very desperate and instable (Zsakai, Karkus, Utczas, & Bodzsar, 2015). The NMBA has laid down standards to treat the adolescents. According to the NMBA Standards 9.3, if the Students feel very relaxed in telling their extremely private issues to the nurse they tend to feel better and hence result in feeling better. They will want to see you again. All this can be done by building trust among them and making them realize that you are there for them.

Another Standard 7.7 as laid down by the NMBA states that the nurse should be able to edify and shore up others to allow their dynamic contribution in dealing with the issues. Both the above standards go hand in hand ("Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia – Home,” 2009). Once the belief is built the teenager will understand the nurse’s viewpoint and restoration to health can be done soon.


Adolescence portrays the teen years between 12 and 18 as well as can be believed as the intermediary stage from infancy to parenthood. The adolescent age is of the most critical ages in the life term of an individual. During this period one faces many transforms such as, physical, mental, social and cognitive changes and dealing with these concerns is never a trouble-free task. Nursing such young people needs a lot of dedication and indulgent. The NMBA has helped the nurses by laying down certain standards that help the nurse in dealing with the young people and lending a hand to them in understanding themselves.


Cribb, V. & Haase, A. (2016). Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, internalization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls. Journal of Adolescence, 46, 107-114.

Erikson, E. (2013). Formalist and Relationalist Theory in Social Network Analysis. Sociological Theory, 31(3), 219-242.

Korostelina, K. (2014). Intergroup Identity Insults: A Social Identity Theory Perspective. Identity, 14(3), 214-229.

McPhie, M. & Rawana, J. (2015). The effect of physical activity on depression in adolescence and emerging adulthood: A growth-curve analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 40, 83-92.

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia - Home. (2009). Retrieved 16 September 2016, from

Sinclair, S. & Carlsson, R. (2013). What will I be when I grow up? The impact of gender identity threat on adolescents' occupational preferences. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 465-474.

Trevelyan Burman, J. (2011). Review: The zeroeth Piaget: Anne-Nelly Perret-Clermont & Jean-Marc Barrelet (Eds.), Jean Piaget and Neuchatel: The Learner and the Scholar (M. Ritchie, K. Schrago, & D. Jemielitly, Trans.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press, 2008. (Original work published 1996), 240 pp. ISBN 978-1-84169-657-7 (hbk). Theory & Psychology, 21(1), 130-133.

Weeks, M., Ooi, L., & Coplan, R. (2015). Cognitive Biases and the Link between Shyness and Social Anxiety in Early Adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence.

Wollenhaupt, J., Rodgers, B., & Sawin, K. (2011). Family Management of a Chronic Health Condition: Perspectives of Adolescents. Journal of Family Nursing, 18(1), 65-90.

Zsakai, A., Karkus, Z., Utczas, K., & Bodzsar, E. (2015). Body Structure and Physical Self-Concept in Early Adolescence. The Journal of Early Adolescence.

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