I will be measuring the test concept of Posttraumatic Progress for children and adolescents of the tsunami of 2011 in Japan and the impact that it had on them.
Assessing these victims of the tsunami and the bearing they felt in posttraumatic progress, and their accounts of anguish. Within the authenticity of this situation, I was aiding through various ways, one of which I donated money, for provisional shelter, and clothing for adolescents, and children. There will be fifty test themes, however upon the aspects of investigation and exclusion there will remain about twenty-five test themes; out of those there will be fifteen that experience anguish and history of trauma, fifteen linked to progress, and twenty will be linked to experience of posttraumatic. Since it is adolescents and children being assessed open-end and closed-end questions will be utilized. For this study theme the test concept is “posttraumatic progress of adolescence and children from the 2011 tsunami in Japan. ”
The specifications within the test that will be measured are psychological disorder, and posttraumatic progress is the hypothesis of measurement. The effects of the tsunami disaster in Japan 2011, and the impact of it on posttraumatic progress of adolescents and children are linked to the behaviors associated to the theory. Examining the victims of the tsunami; their experiences of posttraumatic progress, and their anguish, along with a “self-reported survey of traumatic history. Initially I would consider my personal involvement with aiding in the tsunami relief, this would include donation of money for provisional shelter, and clothing for adolescents and children.
Hence, interviewing victims as well as bystanders that were not victims from the database of the hospital and shelter units, test partakers would be established utilizing literature and articles that have been peer reviewed, and the PTSD criteria from the DSM IV. Since adolescents and children will be assessed, I will be utilizing the open-ended and closed-ended form of questioning. As stated by Klein (2005), close-ended and open-ended questioning “enables straightforward answers upon decision making, especially upon clarifying the findings in struggle with development in the early stages” (Kline, 2005). It is for this very reason I am utilizing this type of questioning format (i. e. oppositional replies: No/Yes). The first open-ended questioning will start by progressing to the oppositional questioning like false/true and no/yes replies. An example from the test subjects: “have you experienced loss of a loved one prior to the tsunami in Japan? (No/Yes), If yes, which member in your family did you lose? This would be a follow up question in response.
As stated by Anastasi & Urbina (1997), “the defining purpose for the appropriate population target is ensuring that the characteristics of that populations interest serves the end goal of that research” (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). Some of the most vital aspects in considering sampling procedure are the following: signifying the target population, requiting partakers, and having the correct number of partakers (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). Upon signifying the target population: “The population of interest is the tsunami victims, the affects that the individuals had with posttraumatic progress from the loss of their loved ones, and/or their homes. Next, recruiting partakers requirements: the interest population is adolescents and children from the age for twelve- and seventeen-years age, both female and male partakers.
There will be two groups (victims) the exam group and (non-victims) the controlled group, in evaluating the effects of posttraumatic progress exposure. The two groups include one-hundred partakers, fifty-females and fifty-males, for a total of two-hundred partakers, and the comparison of “non-victims to victims”. The data that I expect to gather through my testing apparatuses is in conducting a structured interviewing process in assessment of posttraumatic symptoms of progress and anguish, in measurement of the tsunami in 2011 on adolescents and children victim’s posttraumatic progress. “When conducting a self-reported questionnaire, surveys, interviews by telephone, or in-person interviews, numerous factors should be considered, such as the respondent’s home environment, the safety of the interviewer, any interruptions during the interview, and the presence or influence of family members” (Kline, 2005). Hence, for the results of the test to be reliable as well as valid, it is vital for the interview/survey to be at a designated location that is easily accessible. Therefore, interviewing will take place at temporary housing or a medical facility where victims are being treated. My developed test objectives validity is centered on the clinical methods references recognized and verified in the mental health professionals/organizations, like Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) for both adults and children, checklist of traumatic symptoms for adolescents and children’s growth (Briere. , 2005, Saigh. , 2004).
For diagnosing PTSD, a broader variety of assessments have been implemented, three categories are as follows: posttraumatic weakening of psychosocial operative, and related factors of PTSD which include exposures of trauma before/aftermath of the posttraumatic incident, posttraumatic indications (avoidance, invasive re-experiencing, autonomic hyper arousal, numbing, and stress), the true signs of PTSD, any lingering indications of PTSD linked to traumatic-specific detachments, substance abuse, and suicidal signs (Saigh, 2004 ). For this test a designed interviewing inquiry form was structed that consists of the answer-table, scoring-table, and a guide-table, consisting of 7 segments meticulously obtained through the DSM-IV-TR criteria for diagnosing PTSD: “exposure, situational reactivity, re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, increased arousal, significant distress or impairment, and total stress” (DSM-IV-TR; cited in Saigh, 2005). The impact of reliability in measurement with children’s PTSD validity needs to produce a clinical contest of the assessment, that includes diagnosing the disorder, any symptoms, and treatment, as well as evaluations of the end results (Briere, 2005 & Saigh, 2004). The end results for the partakers from both groups will be obtained by a commissioner for comparing the two, and the end results for their testing be measured regularly. Six-month re-checks would be performed, for a period of three years.
This would enable long term impact evaluation to be completed on those partakers who were fifteen to seventeen years of age when the tsunami took place. This would also enable knowing how their adulthood after 3 years turned out. I will be utilizing the collection of data method of “Theoretical or Purpose Sampling”, used to build the theory (Kline, 2005). How PTSD impacted the growth of these adolescents and children is the theory that I am forming. Kline (2005), stated that “the process used for collecting data for hypothetical or purpose selection is directing interviews and surveys for measuring individuals for certain phenomenon of PTSD impact growth” (Kline, 2005). One advantage of utilizing this method is in obtaining/collecting data from the victims living in provisional sheltering units within the disaster areas and finding information that can be utilized for the results with the interviewing and surveying process that will support the foundation of the theory (Kline, 2005). This method holds a disadvantage which is “theme saturation” (Kline, 2005), this is when partakers have memorized questions asked on the inquiry form, offering no other information, upon occurring this study would be interrupted and no new data being collected within this theory (Kline, 2005).
So, revising the questions on the survey should be considered.
As I stated before, ensuring that this study represents the population intended, I am using my involvement in aiding to the relief of this disaster; supporting through the donation of money for provisional shelter, and clothing for these adolescents and children. The conscription of the adolescents and children that are living within the provisional shelter in the areas hit by the tsunami, directing questions to the partakers, and the volunteers that lost parents or other loved ones. Social services led the process, consents were handed out to those with parents and legal guardians. Also, gaining adequate partakers for the study, due to the age bracket of twelve to seventeen. Keeping this in mind, it may be necessary to reach out to outlying areas hit by the tsunami in trying to obtain the correct number of partakers in this study. Additionally, since public health and safety is involved, safety measures need to be taken regarding the possible exposure of hazardous poisons within the environment. Moreover, “Item response theory (IRT) and Classical test theory (CTT)”, may be utilized in the architype of this test. George & Mallery (2011), explain how the (IRT) test concepts are models for measuring the applicability of each model in certain situations and the differences seen in each individual testing objectives, and the (CTT) focuses on the statistics of the test levels (George, & Mallery, 2011).
Calculating the reliability coefficient of internal consistency that lies within an average scoring from the targeted population is what the (CTT) test would be used to do. Whereas, measuring the logistic functions and relations lying in the posttraumatic progress and responses of the impact the tsunami had is what the (IRT) would be used to do. For this study, I will be utilizing a combination of closed-ended and open-ended questions and interviews (i. e. oppositional replies: No/Yes). Upon doing an assessment of a clinical standpoint and utilizing (IRT), the examination would consist of the relation that lies within the trait and the responses of the items, the scored oppositional are referred to as items of dual, 1 point is received for every correct answer and 0 points for each incorrect answer. The “(IRC) or item response curve test and (CRC) category response curve are utilized for polytomous items, and two-parameter logistic items allowing for dual differing in 2 ways; discrimination and severity” (Reise & Waller, 2009). Lastly, able to measure discernment and severity is the two-parameter logistic model of my developed test objectives, aiding in determining the severity for posttraumatic progress, anguish, and the impact seen within each of these from the disaster of the 2011 Japan tsunami.