I strongly agree that terrorism is primarily caused by globalization. I think if there was no globalization, there would be no or less terrorists attack on the world. Globalization has been the cause of frustrations and extremism that has been witnessed in different terrorist groups around the world. The following essay contains my argument in support that globalization is the cause of increased terror attacks in different part of the world. This will involve definition, consequences of globalization, and the relationship between terrorism and globalization.
Terrorism is an act of unlawfully using violence and intimidation to civilians while pursuing personal or group aims. Terrorism is criminal tactics deliberately targeting innocent civilians by taking them hostage or killing them (Asal, 2011). Terrorism involves an armed group raiding attacks to unarmed civilians or security stations/ camps at a time considered as peacetime. Terrorism activities are aimed at intimidating, provoking, or persuading target audiences in struggle for supremacy either socially, politically or economically. Globalization is the integration and coordination of the world as a result of removed boundaries barriers between countries. Globalization involves free movement of people, goods, services, capital, information, and technology. The global integration is as a result of increasing convergence of needs, products, views, idea, and culture ( Schmid, 2015). Therefore globalization integrates the world socially, politically and economically to be one global village.
To begin with, globalization has impacted the world socially. Globalization has changed people’s culture, religion, and interactions. New cultures have emerged that are viewed superior and acceptable in the world. These new cultures have eroded the traditional beliefs and practices that have raised high concerns from conservative individuals or groups. Globalization also changed relationships in the society, roles, and responsibilities (Singh, 2012). The role of women in the society has changed and there men dominance has reduced. This has changed how women are viewed in the society. This impact of globalization has led to several consequences that cause terrorism. First, social disruption has increased discriminations in the society. Individuals or groups who do not conform to the new culture, vices, or lifestyles are discriminated. They are viewed as primitive or uncivilized group in the twenty first century. Discrimination has led to people being denied opportunities or be stereotyped because of belonging to a particular group. Discrimination has also led to certain groups turning against one another with motive to revenge or seek just. Secondly, social disruption has led to religion phobia. Regiophobia has increased with increased extremism from different groups of religion. For instance, Islamophobia has increased in the western societies in extent of isolation and stereotype to be all terrorism (Lutz & Lutz, 2016). People belonging to Islam are feared to be terrorists and this has led to Islam referred as hostile religion. Regiophobia has led to religious group feeling intimidated in the society for their beliefs and practices. This has in return triggered organized hit back to civilians of other believes. Lastly, social integration as a result of globalization has led to emergence of social identity. Social identity refers to strong feeling of belonging to a particular group that influence a person’s mind. Social identity affects an individual social perception and behavior. This strong feeling of belonging to a group has to individuals engaging in terror attacks to “protect” their social category. For instance, individuals of social identity as Muslims have strong connection to Islam that affects his/her social behavior and perceptions. Having a strong identity makes individuals to interpret religion or tradition ideologies in response to threats perceived to be transpiring in the society. Therefore, individuals with strong connections to their cultures or religion view modern society as a threat and this lead them to launching attacks to protect their social category.
Globalization has led to integration of the economies. This has increased terrorism as a result of economic factors. Globalization of the world economy has facilitated the terror groups to get funding, travel, mobilize capital and access products and services (Chowdhury, 2010). Globalization has enabled terror groups to seek funding from different part of the world. They are able to inquire for money anywhere in the world that makes it easy for them to finance their attack around the earth. For instance, a terrorism group in Somali can easily get funding from Asian Islamic States who have more resources. Globalization also enables terror groups to travel around the world to attack civilians. The developed and integrated air, land, and water transport system enable terrorists to travel from one part of the world to another. Terrorists are able to board airplanes and reach their target destination easily and timely. Economic globalization has also enabled the terrorism groups to mobilize capital for their attack. Terror groups are able to get vehicles, guns, bombs, and protective gears for their operations. Integration of the economy enables them to cross border and hire the best equipments to attack civilians. Terror groups are also able to buy food and other essential products for their use during trainings and attacks. On another account, economic integration has disrupted the traditional society. Globalization of the economies has disrupted the traditional society that was focused on the community at large. This has been replaced by modern systems of economics that are based on capitalism ideologies. This is different form the traditional socialism economies where society interests came first. This disruption has caused major changes in the society as a result of changed motives to work. Individuals in the society are motivated by money, power, and social class. This change is against several religious groups that hold to the idea that people should act to serve the community interest. This ideology has also led to new vices in the society. The disruption of the traditional society as a result of economic globalization has faced resistance from the conservative groups who thinks it wrong to be materialistic and selfish (Tasp?nar, 2009). Lastly, globalization of economies has generally led to frustrations to underperforming or stagnant economies. Despite being educated, individuals in some economies feel frustrated when they are unable to create and accumulate wealth. For instance, Islamic states in Asian feel frustrated with globalization after recording stagnation for decades. This is different to other western economies such as Finland that are able to create double of the wealth despite Islamic states exporting oil and natural gases. Economic frustrations lead to economic motivations to launch terror attack to steady growing economies. Therefore, globalization of economies has facilitated terrorism by enabling terror groups and causing frustrations.
Thirdly, globalization has integrated political schemes that pressurize countries and states to conform to specific regulations and policies (Goldman, 2010). The schemes include regional block unions, international monetary fund, World Bank and World Trade Organizations. There are also nongovernmental organizations that act as watch dogs for the country politics, policies, and regulations. Political integration has intergovernmental organizations that work above the politics of a country. This ensures governmental conformity to international law, policies, and regulations. Global politics are based on democracy, respect for human life and freedom of worship. This pursuit of a global descent politics faces a lot of resistance from religious controlled states. Countries that are have official religion or under dictatorship regime face a lot of pressure from international community to conform to international standard law. This mounted pressure faces resistance from the local government that leads to conflict between the state and western country societies. The push by international community to liberalize the state causes struggle for political power and formation of strong opposition groups. This creates enmity between the western societies and the local government. This also causes divisions in the country that lead to terror groups. The international community also advocates for freedom of religion that is not taken lightly by states that dictate state’s religion (Wordingham, 2013). For instance, most Islamic states prohibit any other religion apart from Muslim. This law is against international laws. Lastly, globalization has enabled moderation of immigration policies that has enables people around the world to travel and live anywhere they wish to. This has however not been implemented in some countries that put unrealistic requirements for one to immigrate to their state. For example, only Malaysia and Turkey out of other Islamic states that allow immigrates to settle in their countries. Other Islamic states have immigration laws that cannot be met as a method of eliminating emigrates from their country.
Globalization has driven development and transfer of information technology. Information technology has enabled spread and increased intelligence of terror groups. Information technology has increased methods of communications that enable terrorists to send and receive information when planning and executing terror attack. First, information technology enable terrorist receive updates about what is happening to their target audience. They are able to follow though the internet what their enemies are planning for them. For instance, when United Nations holds a conference and discusses about resolutions on terrorism, they are able to get all the information that was discussed in the conference. Terrorists also follow influential international leaders and organizations on social media and are able to get latest updates. Terrorists use the information they receive to attack civilians and prepare when they are about to be attacked. Secondly, information technology enables terrorists to communicate about their actions. They used the social media to claim responsibility of terror attack. For instance, they take videos or tweet about a terror attack aimed at claiming responsibility. Thirdly, the terrorists use the integrated information system to bide their identity on the internet. They use the internet to buy or request products without being noticed. They also use information technology to fake documents that they use to travel or enter guarded places. Terrorists pose several visas, identity cards and permits to enable them move to different places around the world. Lastly, information technology enables terrorists recruit militants over the internet. Terrorists use the internet to persuade, convince, and recruit individuals to work in their terror groups. The internet enables them to access a wide audience from which they can get potential individuals willing to work with them. This increases the number of terrorists. In addition, globalization of information technology has enabled terrorists launch attack. The terrorists use GPS to locate where they want to target. They also use equipments that use integrated information systems to meet their objectives.
Lastly, globalization has enabled global mobility. People are able to move with ease from one part of the world to another. There is also airways connectivity to all major towns in the world. This makes it convenient for anyone to travel the world and also commute around a city/town. Terrorists take advantage of this fact and travel every in the world to attack civilian. For instance, they are able to travel and launch several attacks at the same time in different location.
From the argument in this essay, globalization is the modern facilitator or trigger of terrorism. Integration of the world socially has led to emergence of frustrated achievers to the modern civilization. This has caused the society to get divided on bases of beliefs and practices. Integration of the economies has also empowered terror groups to unravel their full potential. This has also frustrated stagnate economies to envy steady growing economies. Political integration has mounted pressure to countries to conform to certain laws, policies, and regulations that has faced resistance and has divided governments. Integration and transfer of information technology has enabled terrorists communicate effectively and coordinate their attack. Global mobility has also enabled terror groups to travel around the world and attack their targets. Therefore, I can conclude that terrorism has been primarily been due because of globalization.
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