Sustainability Issues Of Urban Development Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Sustainability Issues of Urban Development and Metro Strategy in the Sydney with Baulkham hills of New South Wales as an example.

Answer:

Introduction

Urban Development and Metro Strategy in Sydney and Baulkham hills New South Wales can create opportunities of employment, higher education and involves strategic planning for development of several projects. However, the urban development and Metro strategy in Sydney and Baulkham hills faces several issues related to sustainability which can be analyzed from various perspectives like ecological, economic and sociological. New South Wales has a suburban place called the Baulkham hills. The area comprises of The Hills shire and the government area. The Baulkham hills witnessed urban development from the year 1960. The hill area was originally inhibited by the Bidjigal people of the suburban area who were from Aboriginal community. The hill area can be accessed by roads and Seven Hills Road, Old Northern Road and Windsor road at the junction of the Baulkham hills. The easiest way to travel from Sydney to Baulkham hills with exit at Windsor Road is via M2 Hills Motorway. The eminent centers of business and commerce near to Baulkham hills are Paramatta, Castle Hill and Syndey CBD. The Hillsbus bus company provides access to these commercial areas from Baulkham hills. Urban Development and metro strategy should be implemented in Baulkham hills of New South Wales because the price of residential property always surges and local Australians find it difficult to buy properties in proper cities. The urban development in Baulkham hills will equip the area with modern facilities and amenities which can be matched to the standards of cities. The Metro strategy in this place can empower the inhabitants of the Baulkham hills by providing them better quality of life so that they can have better connectivity with the city. The inhabitants of the place should have better access to cities for education, travelling to universities and offices. Baulkham hills are is a part of the economic corridor of Sydney and metr

Literature review

There are several issues that can be identified in the urban development process in Sydney and Baulkham hills of the New South Wales. The Metro Strategy and urban development in the Sydney and Baulkham hills are often not in alignment with sustainability challenges. Urban sustainability can be achieved with collaboration of the private and public sector who can work together to ensure that the urban development process and Metro strategy in Sydney and Baulkham hills of New South Wales achieves urban sustainability. The urban development and Metro strategy in Baulkham hills of NSW create opportunities for better education, creates thousands of job opportunities for the inhabitants of the region and the development of the rural areas of Baulkham hills of NSW provides better quality of life to the community and inhabitants of the region(Pearce, Barbier and Markandya 2013). However, there are issues like there has been higher environmental footprint in Sydney and Baulkham hills of NSW due to the urban development and the Metro Strategy in the region. The urban development process in the region should follow a eco-centric perspective and human and nature should co-exist peacefully in Sydney and Baulkham hills to solve the issues related to environment and sustainability. The resources used in the urban development process needs to be renewable resources. There are several issues like reducing carbon footprint to tackle the problem of global warming, protecting the ecological system and the environment of the region, waste management and waste recycling, reducing health-related risk of the residents and community by minimizing their exposure to harmful chemicals which should be addressed by the government during the urbanization and Metro Strategy of NSW (Fakhimi 2016).

Trends

The issues of urban development and Metro Strategy in Sydney can be evaluated from a number of perspectives like ecological, economic and sociological issues.

The identification of the issues is as follows

Economic issues:

The ageing demographics in the Sydney and Baulkham hills of NSW pose serious threat to the economical sustainability. This aging population are about to retire from work and there is not enough replacement of young population in the workforce in Sydney and Baulkham hills of New South Wales which will increase the dependency rate. The ageing population will cause a reduction of the urban Gross Domestic Product and there will be a pressure on the health, infrastructure and housing systems of the region. The ageing population poses several risks like the decline of the economy, degradation of the environment and costs of infrastructure.

There has been utilization of public areas in Sydney and Baulkham hills of NSW for development of roads so that private automobiles can travel comfortably. This process of urbanization has enabled the residents of Sydney and Baulkham hills to live far from their job location or educational centers,however the dependency on private cars and reluctance of the residents to use public transport has resulted in a rising price of gas and oil and has affected the economic activity of Sydney and NSW.

There is increasing demand for spacious houses in Sydney and the Urban development and Metro strategy should plan for developing compact cities with pedestrian areas, parks and community centers. The price of property sores up in the region and has affected the affordability of the residents to purchase homes for living. The urbanization and metro strategy has resulted in immigration from different countries and investors from foreign countries like China has invested in the property market of Sydney and NSW resulting in the economic constraints for the local residents to purchase properties (Hobson 2003).

Ecological and Sociological issues

There have been several sociological concerns in the Sydney and Baulkham hills of New South Wales. The health and well being of the residents of the Baulkham hills should be taken care of by improving the transportation system and enhancing the connectivity with the city. There should be job opportunities near home in the Baulkham hills area. Urbanization and metro strategy in Sydney has led to development of expensive residential complex, better amenities for the multinational companies to set up their offices and Universities which provide world-class education. However people of the community of Baulkham hills of NSW may have to travel long distances for accessing the facility of education in school, colleges and especially for higher education. Though there are development of industries in the Baulkham hills and the region of the hills are connected with the economic corridor of Sydney, still inhabitants of the region should have better accessibility to employment and education near their homes as it is tough for them to afford the expensive residential complex or pay rents for property in Sydney.

The urbanization and metro strategy of Baulkham hills of New South Wales should consider sustainability issues like incorporating knowledge about sustainability to the population of Sydney and Baulkham hills. The issue that is faced by the local community is proper development of infrastructure like development of supporting facility and development of information technology in the region so that a literate community who are aware of the challenges of sustainability is developed. The curriculum of the University and educational institutions of Sydney and Baulkham hills should have subjects and activities that make them aware of the challenges related to sustainability and make them technologically literate so that they can constantly learn and contribute to a sustainable society with innovation and creativity.


The other social and ecological that are faced by the residents of Baulkham hills of New South Wales and Sydney are related to their health and lifestyle. Urbanization and Metro strategy has created a sedentary lifestyle for people, residents are dependent on automation and consume excess food which creates health problems for them like diabetes, cancer, respiratory disease and depression. The urbanization has resulted in global warming and emission of greenhouse gases and CFCs in the atmosphere resulting in the depletion of ozone layer. The penetration of the harmful Ultraviolet rays has led to an increase in diseases like skin cancer (Lawrence and McMANUS 2008).

Findings

The information from secondary sources like websites of the government and research articles have pointed out issues of urban development and metro strategy in Sydney and Baulkham hills which are as follows-

1) Urbanization and metro development has led to high competitive forces. There has been an increase in immigration rates in New South Wales and Sydney and there will be an additional requirement of 760,000 jobs in 2036 as compared to 2006.

2) Urbanization and metro development has led to an increase in demand of property and the price of property in Sydney and New South Wales are surging up due to investment in property from foreign countries like China, rise in immigration rate and low rending rates by banks in the area and thus 77,000 more homes will be required in Sydney in 2036 as compared to 2006.

3) The carbon footprint in the region has increased due to urbanization and metro strategy in the Baulkham hills of New South Wales and Sydney which is an issue of sustainability (Ahmed, Raitu and Anderson 2016).

Analysis

Forces for Sustainability and Development

There are forces for sustainability and development in Sydney and New South Wales which are addressed through education. The curriculum of the Universities makes students aware of the global challenges of sustainability so that students become responsible citizens who have capabilities to handle the challenges and issues of sustainability.

Urban and Metro strategy is implemented in the Baulkham hills of New South Wales ensures that a living environment which is sustainable can be provided to the inhabitants of the hills. The government has focused on the development of residential projects, telecommunication systems, electricity and infrastructure in Sydney and Baulkham hills. The Dharug country forms a large part of the council area of Baulkham hills area. Urban development has been a part of this area with the development of Community Center, Castle Hill Library and Rouse Hill Center. The Norwest Business Park and the Castle Hill industrial area are among the major employment lands in the Baulkham hills. There are many global as well as National companies which have chosen Baulkham hills to be a place for their business centers. Some of the notable Companies that have presence in the Baulkham hills area are IBM, Woolsworth and ResMed. There are prominent shopping centers in Castle Hills, Baulkham hills and Winston hills. The local government of the Baulkham hills plays a role of paramount importance in the development of innovation and skills among the local people of the Baulkham hills shire. The local government integrates housing markets and employment in the region by involving local labor in the housing projects (Higgins, Milne and Van Gramberg 2015).


The local government ensures that economic viability of the community of the Baulkham hills of the New South Wales are taken care of in the urban development and Metro Strategy process. It is ensured by the local government that the health of the community is taken care of during the developmental process. The development of infrastructure can often pose threats to the health of the local community which is avoided by the government. There is a strong sense of community in the neighborhood of the Baulkham hills which attracts new residents to the area. There are small and medium sized business owned by families of the Baulkham hills. There is a strong cohesion and sense of commitment among the community of the Baulkham hills which can be attractive for new residents.

The infrastructure for telecommunications and radio communications in the Baulkham hills helps in the achievement of social, economical and environmental sustainability in the region. The development of telecommunication in the region also protects the interests of different stakeholders like community, local, industry and governments. The infrastructure for telecommunication is designed well and concealed cables for telecommunication are designed whenever it is suitable. The telecommunication infrastructure makes minimal use of the land where there are facilities for education. Lands which are visited by children and where there are people with health complications like facilities for aged care and hospitals. The telecommunication infrastructure plans to minimize the exposure of electromagnetic radiation among the public and local communities of the Baulkham hills. The community of the Baulkham hills is well informed about the developments and projects undertaken by the government for the development of telecommunication infrastructure and they are involved in participative decision making of policies and programs. The telecommunication site is restored after any infrastructure is removed and infrastructure of telecommunication does not block the view of any cultural heritage and notable centers of the Baulkham hills .Adverse effects on environment is minimized while development of the infrastructure.

The local government Act of 1993 of the Baulkham hills ensures that development in the area meets the standards of ecological sustainability. Precautions is taken by the local government in the Baulkham hills where development of infrastructure in the region can affect the environment on short, medium and long –term or pose serious threats to the ecological environment of the region. Involvement of the community of the board is mandatory throughout the process of Urban Development and Metro Strategy in the Baulkham hills of New South Wales (Galtung 2003).

The local government ensures that biodiversity and preservation of flora and fauna in the Baulkham hills is not affected throughout the process of urban development and metro strategy in the Baulkham hills

Throughout the process of urban development and metro strategy in the Baulkham hills of the New South Wales, the local government ensures that technology which is efficient in energy is used. The designs and materials that are used in the urban development and metro strategy of the Baulkham hills are also efficient in energy. The government ensures efficient energy management process in the urban development of Baulkham hills and renewable energy and materials are utilized effectively during the process.

The forces for sustainability and development can be noticed in the waste management process in the urban development and metro strategy in the Baulkham hills of New South Wales. The principles of the hierarchy of the waste management are implemented in the Baulkham hills of NSW. The recovery of waste and disposal system in the Baulkham hills follows the process of reducing, reusing and recycling of wastes throughout the process of urban development and metro strategy. The solid waste management process is effective in the Baulkham hills and it is ensured that transportation costs are reduced while wastes are taken to the land-filing sites. While the land-filling process is carried out, it is ensured that emission of methane gas which has the potential to harm the environment and cause global warming is controlled.

The local government in the Baulkham hills of the New South Wales encourages that throughout the development process in the region of the hills public transport, pedestrian trips and bicycles are used so that energy in the transportation process is efficiently used.

In Sydney and New South Wales, urbanization and metro strategy has led to the development of many industries and global companies. It is ensured that accounting practices in the Companies have changed over time and these organizations have started focusing on long term sustainability issues and publish sustainability reports. The business organizations ensure that they focus on people and planet of the Triple Bottom Line rather so that they not only create short term profitability for shareholders but can create value for stakeholders in the long run.

Forces against sustainability and development

The urbanization and metro strategy in Sydney and New South Wales has led to crisis of housing. This crisis has affected the people with low income and people of the region have moved to coastal areas due to high price of property in the region. There has been lack of education related to investment in residential property among the inhabitants of the Baulkham hills of the New South Wales and Sydney, while the urban development and metro strategy and lower government rates in the region has promoted investment in residential property from the foreign countries like China. Urban policies should address the issue of unevenness between the supply of land and demand for land, urban sprawling which is unsustainable should be stopped and the government should focus on making housing affordable. Homelessness impacts the physical and mental health of inhabitants of the region and this is a sustainability challenge that should be addresses.

The urban development and metro strategy should consider the overall health of the young population. The rate of suicide and domestic violence are common and government should address sustainability challenges related to urban development and metro strategy in Baulkham hills of NSW and the Sydney region like promoting protection from sun to avoid skin cancer, controlling eating disorder and enhancing the mental health and welfare of people.

Public transport infrastructure is not effectively utilized by the technology and business parks and these business centers are not located on the route of public transport in the Baulkham hills of the New South Wales. Proper identification of the skills of the local population of the Baulkham hills is not done resulting in scarcity of local jobs. The need of employment is a sustainability concern for the inhabitants of the Baulkham hills which should be addressed.

Urbanization and Metro strategy in the Baulkham hills have caused an increasing carbon footprint in the region. There are serious threats posed by the infrastructural development to the environment like polluted air and water, increase of gases like carbon dioxide leading to global warming, dependence on cars and non-renewable resources, depletion of ozone layer which are forces against sustainability and should be addressed immediately.

While urbanization and infrastructure development is carried out, residents of the Baulkham hills of New South Wales are often exposed to hazardous chemicals which are a force against sustainability and should be addressed. The urban development and metro strategy in the region often fails to preserve the biodiversity in the region which is a sustainability issue that should be addressed (Bell and Morse 2008).

The forces against sustainability are that the diverse housing needs of the residents of the Baulkham hills are not addressed. The population of the Baulkham hills of NSW and Sydney comprises of people with disabilities and ageing population and the inability of the government to cater to the needs of this type of population is extremely important.

The forces against sustainability in the urban development and Metro Strategy in the Baulkham hills of New South Wales are also the ageing population in the workforce. The government should make more effort to understand the skills of the youth and include them in the workforce. The ageing population is also a part of the dependent population which largely survives on the pension scheme of the government and contributes very less towards the economy of the country. Though the ageing population should be protected as a sustainability measure, however youth should be trained as sustainable citizens (Peterson 2004).

Recommendations

From the report, it can be concluded that the biggest sustainability challenge in the Sydney, NEW South Wales and Baulkham hills is the increase of interest rates, soaring rise of residential property which leads to threats of sustainability like homelessness among the residents with low income category in the region. The government should plan projects of housing and the lending rated of the bank should be minimized to make residential housing affordable for people. The sustainability challenge faced by the residents of the Baulkham hills is that there is scarcity of local jobs and the residents have to travel long distances for education and employment. This sustainability challenge can be addressed by developing the infrastructure in the region, better transportation facility should be created and the economic corridor and business parks should be well developed in the region so that residents of Baulkham hills do not have to travel to places far away from their home for working. Entrepreneurship should be promoted and skill based jobs should be created in the region. Development of infrastructure like Information Technology can enable people of the Baulkham hills to work from home.

The sustainability challenges can be addressed in the Baulkham hills, New South Wales and Sydney by creating a culture of sustainability among people from an early age. The schools and universities play a vital role in addressing the issues of sustainability. The curriculum of the Universities and educational institutions should include subjects and activities related to sustainability. The urban development and metro strategy in the Baulkham hills of New South Wales and Sydney has increased reliability on private cars and thus fuel prices have increased in the region. The government should address this issue by creating facilities for public transport and by making public transportation affordable in Sydney. The cost of gas and fuel can be reduced if government encourages residents to opt for eco-friendly medium of travel like walking and usage of bicycles. The carbon footprint should be reduced and it should be ensured that the government adopts better energy management procedures and makes use of renewable energy throughout the process of urbanization.

Reference Lists

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Bell, S. and Morse, S., 2008. Sustainability indicators: measuring the immeasurable?. Earthscan.

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Lawrence, K. and McMANUS, P.H.I.L., 2008. Towards household sustainability in Sydney? Impacts of two sustainable lifestyle workshop programs on water consumption in existing homes. Geographical Research, 46(3), pp.314-332.

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Peterson, M., 2004. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. Journal of Macromarketing, 24(1), pp.78-79.

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