The Internet of things is nothing but a connection of physical devices, vehicles and other items fixed with sensors, actuators, and network connectivity that allow these objects to collect the data and exchange the data. Iot have been used in various applications and it uses so many communication methods such as RFID etc
History of IOT
The term Internet of things was first coined by Kevin Ashton at Proctor and Gamble in 1999 while linking RFID in P&G’s supply chain with Internet. Internet of things is revolutionizing modern wireless telecommunications. Things communicating to things directly without human intervention are called device to device communication or Internet of Things. They include things like RFID, WIFI, barcodes, smartphones, sensors, actuators, near field communications etc. An important need of IOT is that for connecting devices, each device must have a unique address. It is similar to machine to machine technologies used in Industries but in an optimized manner for the end level consumer.
Methods of Iot
RFIDRFID stands for radio frequency identification. It has two parts a tag and a reader RFID use radio waves for communication. It contains a chip that stores data and antenna for transmission. RFID tags receive signal from reader and transmit additional information they come in three different configurations
- Passive reader active tag.
- Active reader passive tag.
- Active reader active tag
Near field communication
This is similar to RFID. NFC technology uses RFID readers in mobile devices and when it comes in vicinity of another device they transmit signals. It uses electromagnetic waves in radio frequency for communication. It is a low power wireless link with a short range used for communicating small data packets. It is seen as a promising technology for implementing Internet of Things. Already Apple Inc is using NFC in its wireless payment technology known as apple pay. NFC antenna is integrated into apple devices like Smart phones, smart watches etc.
Using NFC, these devices connect directly with point of sale machines wirelessly and make payment. This technology is seen as an alternative to debit cards & credit cards.Machine to machine communicationIt was first used in industrial manufacturing system like SCADA for remote monitoring. Later it was introduced to various other applications in healthcare, business etc. It is more economical than SCADA because it transmits signals through public networks like ethernet. The main parts of an M2M system are sensors, WIFI or cellular link, RFID and a computer software to infer sensor data and take decisions. M2M uses many device specific standards like OMA DM (open mobile alliance device management, MQTT a messaging protocol, one M2M communications protocol etc.
Vehicle to Vehicle communications
It is a wireless transmission of data between moving motor vehicles. It is mainly used to avoid collision between moving vehicles by transmitting their location and speed to other nearby vehicles over an ad hoc Network. This technology is being explored for driverless cars.
Activity trackers can be embedded onto watches and sports wears and used for collecting data about athlete’s body movement thereby providing training advice. IOT platform is one such thing that is gaining prominence among sports persons. It provides real time data to coaches for planning training programs for athletes.
Connected smart cars
Smart cars are one connected to other moving vehicles and road infrastructure. They can help in providing traffic updates to the driver in the road ahead from the connected network of sensors. They can alert a driver in case an emergency vehicle such as an ambulance is approaching and needs to make way for it.
It uses devices connected through internet for remote monitoring and management of home appliances such as thermostats, TV, security cameras etc, to reduce energy consumption and to improve user experience. It uses communication protocols like Zigbee, Z-wave, X10 etc. The widespread popularity of smart homes has lead major technology companies like google, Amazon to launch smart home products like Amazon echo, Google home etc. However, security of connected devices remains a major concern.
Location based services
Using GPS technology IOT can deliver targeted Location based advertising. It can also help in monitoring child movement.IOT in medical applicationsNano devices are being increasingly used in medical applications. Internet of Nano things is Nano devices communicating with each other. Nano pacemakers are being developed to monitor human heart rate, trigger heart beat when needed and to inform medical staff in case of emergency all by using IOT.
Due to internet our world has been changed rapidly and with the help of IOT all communication process becomes so easy. Several techniques have been implemented to make IOT technology to reach to a greater extend.