Discuss About The Submission Of Economic Regulation Authority.
Australia had created awareness among the people that their cities and towns that include the industrial and commercial areas should be more feasible. The economical way of growth tries to adapt many new technology and innovations that supports their growth in the development of the industrial and commercial construction. The present global awareness report at Perth, reports that the traditional way of handling the waste with the end-of-pipe solutions is not doable due to the potential bang of the environment. This causes a greater impact at the capital of Western Australia for the development of the imperishable industrial area. In this paper we are going to discuss a case study regarding the airport of the Western Australia and the earthworks that had been carried out in that industrial area. Moreover this paper also deals with the design criteria of the urban water Management that was done at Perth. The word earthwork means the work carried out in the particular land such as adjoining, removing, astonishing and replacing the soil by departing or removing the earth or the land. The soil disturbance could be done by blasting, departing etc, which does not include the normal way of maintaining the lands. The definition also excludes those activities that are identified as vegetation clearance activities. A potential source of information at the present is available but this still focuses on the development of industrialized sectors only in the urban and the residential uses.
Industrial ecology is a concept applied to the industrial areas in minimizing the use and maximizing the resource reuse. This concept mainly focuses on reusing the resource waste for any other purposes or no waste production from the utility of natural resource. This forms as a chain that is sufficiently good in terms of environment, natural balance and economic benefits. Although there are some drawbacks such as time consuming and increase cost this has a renowned benefit such as operating in a long term with no drawbacks instead of short term break down.
The single designed system is required in designing the urban water cycle that manages water from the potential resources such as storm water, flooding, wetlands, estuaries as well as the coastal area water is also considered. The main concept that is to be taken into consideration is that this entire water management cycle should be the best management and planned performance, which bring feasible water resources into its consideration. This should be carried out with the best planning process with the help of the government, which is described in the figure given below.
Figure 1: Optimal planning process carried out by the state government
As mention by the state planning policy by the government of Western Australia, there are certain key factors for the integration of water cycle management and they are as follows:
- All water resources should be taken in the water management cycle that includes the waste water.
- The incorporation of land and water while planning is necessary
- The water users must be considered during the planning process that includes the whole community, industry and the surroundings. The planned process should be feasible from all the resources of water.
- Combination of water used by the human and also for the natural process should be estimated.
Storm water modeling criteria:
The principle of storm water modeling is different and certain design objectives are to be met in this criterion. The figure 2 given below shows the model of the storm water management process. They are as follows:
- There should be at least 80% in the diminution of the suspended solids
- Maintaining at least 60% diminution in the phosphorus usage
- Almost 45% of nitrogen should be reduced from the usage
- At most 70% of gross pollutants should be reduced from the usage.
Figure 2: Storm water management model
Several studies had been carried out in the simulation and modeling of the construction of the urban water management system at Western Australia. These evaluations are supported by the multi-criteria analysis, cost-benefit analysis, life cycle assessment and optimization technique. The three main considerations in the system include the demand management, evaluation criteria that maintain their feasibility and circumstances that are taken into consideration. Certain studies have been carried out regarding the water supply options in the detailed manner. Moreover climate situation plays a major role in the sustainability of the urban water management system.
General Rules For The Development Of Urban Water Management:
A well developed design of urban water management includes all sources of water from the environment. There are certain specifications as well as certain conditions that have to be considered in this strategy. This particular design process should be a response to the site’s condition that should be within the planned expansion. The design, which is made with the determination of subdivision stage, will take time to attain the best consequence. The local management process should be considered in attaining the best result which includes the subdivision stage process with the consideration of all water facilities. UWMP states the achievement of the water-sensitive subdivision design that comprises the principles and strategies of the urban water management design. For designing the process the following should also be considered.
Runoff- In order to estimate the runoff from the building unreceptive surfaces it is necessary to thoroughly estimate the water losses in terms of the evaporation, infiltration and preservation of water in the wells, pipes, rainwater tanks etc, which appears during the usual ARI events.
Soil type and Storm water penetration- this makes the soil to absorb the water through penetration or infiltration by one-in-one year ARI event. While doing the post- development water balance, the degree of penetration is taken into account that maximizes the storm water penetration through the sandy soils. The rainwater should be drained from these areas to any other areas and those areas should be properly vegetated or it should provide facility to the underground water storage that could be later used for certain purposed in maintaining the ground water level.
Drainage design criteria:
This section deals with the drainage design criteria. For the design of hydraulic and hydrology of the drainage system we use the guideline named “Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR)”. This forms as a guideline for the estimation of the flood. The above publication also established “Urban Storm water Management” which was very helpful in estimating the peak flows. For designing the pipe of the drainage system “computerized Rational or Laurenson formula based software plays a major role. The design of the piped drainage system for the average recurrence intervals for the industrial or commercial area is entirely based on the catchment area. The types of catchment area are as follows: 1) Central Business District B) Commercial/Industrial Areas C) Residential Area D) Street Drainage System. XP-Storm software developed by the WP software helps us in estimating the peak flow rate and produces the output file regarding hydraulic grade lines. The storm water management criteria is shown in the figure given below.
Figure 3: Block diagram indicating the storm water management criteria
The location of the Perth Airport is in 12 kilometers from the east of the Perth’s Central Business District (CBD). This forms as integration with the various transport facility that includes the Kewdale rail freight facility, which is a most important highway network and, via major State roads, the Port of Fremantle. The land area covers about 2105 hectares and this land is basically used for the aviation purpose but some of these lands could also be used for the non-aviation purpose. This area is associated with the car parking facility and according to section 89 (1) (e) of airport act, any new building that is to be constructed in the estate should seek a MDP that does not predominantly used as an passenger terminal. The cost of this new building of this estate will exceed 20 million dollars. The proposed construction could have an impact with the environment and therefore a MDP should again seek permission under section 89 (1) (m) of airport act. This requires the approval of a Commonwealth Minister for the infrastructure and the transportation since the budget of this construction could exceed 20 million dollars. The act of section 91 includes: 1) The objective of the proposed project 2) Providing an assessment regarding the needs that are achieved by the users due to this development 3) Outline for this development 4) Reliability of the rent obtained by the airport from the commonwealth 5) the development should be reliable with the final master plan 6) the employment levels that should be satisfied based on the economy and the community considering certain environmental impacts.
Figure 4: major development planning process of the airport.
The area of landing includes the landing and the takeoff of the airplane and this includes two areas as follows:
This is a pathway used for the landing and takeoff operation which is in the form of cemented long and narrow rectangle strip. This pathway is covered with the grasses on the both the sides of the pathway. Runway which is located in the center of the landing strip is said to be the width of the runway and the area of the shoulders. The runway is smaller when compared to the length of the landing strip. This is due to the reason that the stop way could be accommodated in case of the derelict takeoff. The space of the runway should be sufficient for the landing and takeoff of the airplane. This should be constructed in such a way that the length and width should fit into the landing operations of the airplane. There should be enough area when the aircraft starts to accelerate while taking off from the land. Certain meteorological and topological condition decides the length of the runway. Transverse gradient should always stay greater than 0.5%
This is said to be a paved way that connects runway by loading apron with the maintenance and services or by other runway. This could be used in air by the airplane for purposes like exit or landing etc. at taxiway the speed of the aircraft is comparatively low than landing or taking off process. The runway and taxiway intersection should be paid attention since this point forms as a place for the intense loading. When a taxiway is said to be weaker then there is a risk of the airplane to fall down from the taxiway. The longitudinal grade should be greater than 3 per cent whereas the transverse way should be greater than 0.5 per cent. This should be visible to the ilot at the distance from 300 meters and 3 meter from the earth level.
Recently open Perth taxiway is named as Charlie that is located at east direction, which is parallel to the runway 03/21. This was further extended at the south end and joins the runway 03 via new taxiway of Charlie 11. Before, taxiway C ended about one-third of the distance from the threshold of runway 03, requiring some aircraft to either take off at the intersection of Taxiway L or cross the runway on taxiway Lima to then proceed down the western side of the runway on taxiway Alpha to the south end for take-off. Due to this there occurs some time delays and there was a lack in the safety issues since this has to cross the active runway. The extension of Charlie reduced the time up to 20%. The taxiway Charlie at Perth could be seen in the figure given below.
Figure 5: Taxiway Charlie at Perth airport
Result Of The Research:
Several measures are taken into account by the Perth airport regarding the water facility and the energy efficiency in the estate. The reduction of water consumption could be satisfied by the following measures:
- Water re-uses
- Broader landscaping used native and drought resistant species
- Selection of species suitable for the car parking and street trees for providing proper convenience
- Following the principle of Water Sensitive Urban design (WSUD)
The building should satisfy the mandatory requirement; “deemed to satisfy” provided by the Volume 1 Section J of Building code of Australia (BCA). This Section purely considers the energy efficient techniques in the process of building design. The layout of the airport at Perth, Australia could be seen in the figure 6 and the land approval process is shown in figure 7 given below.
Figure 6: Layout of the Airport at Perth, Australia
Figure 7: Land Approval process by Perth airport
The necessary water supply is taken from the Dunreath Drive at the Perth Airport WA 6105, Australia. The water is also provided in the form of pipes and lines to the fire sprinkler system which is used as a safety concern when there is fire in the airport. This proposed location connects the Dunreath Drive directly through the underground system. The drainage system of the airport is located through the precinct pump station to the east of Dunreath Drive, which discharges into the larger Airport West system. At the present, Perth airport is building a “Living stream” whose site is at the north-west of the Tokin Highway. This particular project got approval from the adjoining Direct Factory Outlet (DFO) Minor Variation MDP (approved by the Minister on 5 April 2017). Living Stream forms as an important aspect of the airport, which is designed to manage and utilize the surface and underground water very efficiently. This could manage the off-site Storm water discharge rate from the airport. Storm water from the proposed development will be connected into this network. The existing model of the drainage system that was connected to the Dunreath Drive could be extended till 250 meters. In this paper, we had dealt the concept of the urban water management system and the design and planning implemented was also brought out effectively. We had made a case study regarding the airport at Perth, Western Australia and the water management system at the Dunreath Drive was also noted.
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