# Statistical Methods Rates And Proportions Essay

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## Question:

Discuss about the Statistical Methods Rates and Proportions.

### Introduction:

A health promotion campaign will be developed for sunbed users. It is evident from the paper of Murray and Turner (2004) that most people are unaware of risk of cancer due to use of sunbed. On the other hand some people are aware yet use as they are behaviour is controlled by behaviours, some ignore the risk factors, some use it because it is less time consuming.

The aim of the campaign is to create awareness of the dangers associated with excess use of the sunbed. It includes messages on early detection of skin cancer and sun protection strategies. Such campaigns have been successful in Australia when launched with large scale communication programmes (Kemp et al. 2010). The campaign will emphasise on appropriate use of sunscreen and other behavioural changes such as avoiding direct exposure to strong sunlight. The campaign is justified because it aims to eliminate the misconception of the participants that sunbeds are safer than exposure to sun as found in findings of Murray and Turner (2004).

In order to design a health promotion campaign the best approach is to use qualitative research evidence due to gain in perspective of the larger population on the targeted topic. This type of the research helps in understanding the type of meaning that the people assign to the social phenomenon. Collecting data through interviews highlights, the mental process that determines particular behaviour. Therefore, it is east to design the health promotion campaign (Merriam and Tisdell 2015).

In this paper the study design used was population based case-control-family study to investigate the association of sunbed use and risk of early-onset melanoma.

The data was collected using interview method from January 2001 to December 2005. Questionnaires were designed for the participants for collecting demographic information and details of melanoma diagnoses. Structured questionnaires were designed for participants for telephonic interview. In addition, cases (604) and controls (479) were asked questions to estimate the level of exposure to specific site on melanoma. Further, using unconditional logistic regression, associations were determined by odd ratio. Factors such as sex, age, city, family history, education and exposure to sun and sunlight were adjusted. The results were compared to those who never used sunbed.

The odds ratio of “never” using a sunbed 1.41 at 95% confidence interval (1.01–1.96). It was 2.01 at 95% confidence interval (1.22-3.31) for “Ever” use group. The odd ratio means that the odds of occurrence of an outcome in case of particular exposure compared to the odds of outcome without particular exposure.

Based on the results and the findings it can be interpreted that the “Ever” use group appear to be at greater risk of developing melanoma when compared to the never use group. Participants in the category of “Ever” use and who have used for more than 10 sessions in lifetime have 41% higher risk than those in the never used sunbed. These findings indicate that the use of sunbed and UV radiation exposure increases the risk of melanoma (early onset). It can be interpreted that the risk increases with the number of times the sunbed is used. It means once used in early stage, later exposure works as cumulative effect. Over all it indicates that the risk or melanoma onset is higher for those who have used many times at early age.

The term statistical significance refers to an event which is very unlikely to have occurred considering the null hypothesis. It indicates that the relationship between more than two or two variables have not caused by random chance. The data is thus tested by p value where P denotes probability. It is the probability that the random occurrence can justify the findings or outcomes of event. If p value is lower than or equal to 5%. If the p value is set at 5% it means that the random occurrence can occur once in every 20 times (Fleiss et al. 2013). When a confidence interval is chosen say 95% , then the probability of error is 5%. It mean that the value beyond the range is rejected. Thus, in the given paper the values of ever use and never use are statically significant.

For the participants below 25 years the association was stronger for melanoma diagnosed, as it is evident from the OR values, for first use OR was 1.64. Since the odd ration is greater than 1 the control is better than the intervention. Those above 25 years of age and have ever used sunbed the OR was 1.06. In this case also the control is better but the intervention is slightly better then the former one. It means that the outcome is not same in both groups or else the ratio would have been 1 (Merriam and Tisdell, 2015) .

Based on the study findings the risk associated with those who are 25 years or older and have used sunbed for first time include OR of 1.06. There is a lower risk of melanoma when compared to those below 25 years and have used first time.

The study did not exclude the possibility of recall bias. There is need of excluding this bias because the study uses cases and controls. There is high probability that the accuracy of reporting the exposures to sunbed may differ in both the groups. If recall bias is not excluded then the participants with sunbed exposure may recall memories (more common in press) more thoroughly than the control group.

In addition, there might also be an occurrence of selection bias. It means that the subjects are not truly representing the population that produced the cases. Since, there is a poor participation by both the groups; it might happen that the results are manipulated by the previous exposure to sunbed. It means the true association between the exposure and the outcome may not be achieved. It is thus not possible to deduce the association of early onset of melanoma even if the exposure was since early adulthood.

According to Wheeler, (2017) after the NSW ban on the commercial use of solariums, the article reports campaign against the ban. Further, the article showed the probability of rise in black market. It may cause rise in price of the desired product with the rise in unreported taxable income

After ACT has joined NSW on banning commercial use of solariums, there is a fear, that sunbed will be used privately. It may lead to misuse, as there is no governing authority or professional supervising the use it may lead to adverse health consequences (Eadie 2017)

• Current interests related to career are to excel as health information management professional. It includes a combination of science, information technology and business.
• The figure given below shows the eligibility criteria for the job of health information manager
• The key skills required by the health mangers are ability to obtain and interpret the health related data. It also includes good written and verbal communication skills and ability to think critically (Abdelhak et al. 2014). The specific skills I have developed in HBS108 are ability to interpret health related data. For instance in this assignment I have learned the way to identify the odd ratio of the given scientific data and interpret the findings by its critical analysis. The assignment and presentation have also helped in enhancing my verbal communication and non-verbal communication skills.

## References

Abdelhak, M., Grostick, S. and Hanken, M.A., 2014. Health information management of a strategic resource. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Cust, A.E., Armstrong, B.K., Goumas, C., Jenkins, M.A., Schmid, H., Hopper, J.L., Kefford, R.F., Giles, G.G., Aitken, J.F. and Mann, G.J., 2011. Sunbed use during adolescence and early adulthood is associated with increased risk of early?onset melanoma. International journal of cancer, 128(10), pp.2425-2435.

EADIE, C. (2017). Bunbury solarium owner shutting up shop after commercial ban. [online] Bunbury Mail. Available at: [Accessed 29 Apr. 2017].

Fleiss, J.L., Levin, B. and Paik, M.C., 2013. Statistical methods for rates and proportions. John Wiley & Sons.

Kemp, G.A., Eagle, L. and Verne, J., 2010. Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: the example of sun protection in the UK. Health promotion international, p.daq048.

Merriam, S.B. and Tisdell, E.J., 2015. Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley & Sons.

Murray, C.D. and Turner, E., 2004. Health, risk and sunbed use: a qualitative study. Health, risk & society, 6(1), pp.67-80.

Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K., 2015. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), pp.533-544.

Wheeler, C. (2017). NSW bans the commercial use of solariums. [online] The Sydney Morning Herald. Available at: [Accessed 29 Apr. 2017].