Spiritual Tourism And Hospitality Research Essay


Discuss about the Spiritual Tourism and Hospitality Research.



Tittle of hospitality is usually considered as device which deals with the public relations (Lashley, 2015). In other words, this term encourages the study related to the hosts, guests, and hospitableness. It states the relationship between guest and host under which host receives the guest with goodwill and it also includes the reception and entertainment of guest, visitors, and strangers. There are number of expert’s which states that hospitality is the services granted by great soul that actually cares for whole universe through the ties of humanity Law. Exploring the concept of hospitality in the context of social science can be considered as the basic agenda of the hospitality. Therefore, study related to hospitality covers all the aspects of relationship between hosts and guests, domestic and commercials facts, and cultural settings. On the basis of these aspects it can be said that hospitality very important for human life and culture (Blain & Lashley, 2014).

This essay discusses the changes happen in hospitality industry with time, and what type of changes can be occurred in future. These changes are analyzed with the help of some arguments such as how this industry becomes inhospitable with time, whether industry has both hospitable and inhospitable elements and changes occurred in this industry as per the market conditions, etc.

Structure of this essay contains the background which includes brief history of domestic/private hospitality, role of this industry in commercial sector, and context of hospitableness in lieu of stated arguments. After discussing about the context and meaning of hospitality, this paper states how hospitable today the hospitality industry is and impact of technology on hospitality. Lastly, essay is concluded with brief conclusion which states the important facts of essay in brief.

The broader enquiry of term hospitality demands academic research which includes the analysis of historical activities in context of cultural, domestic, and commercial domains (Lashley & morrionson 2000). Each domain represents the different aspect of hospitality and details of these aspacts are stated below:

Brief history of hospitality in domestic and private context:

The domestic domain helps in the consideration of some issues related to the definition of hospitality, hosting and ‘hospitableness’. Hospitality is defined as supplying food, drinks, and accommodation to those peoples who are not the members of the household. There are number of articles which exclusively consider the commercial market in which exchange is occurred between the person who receives the hospitality and person who supplies the hospitality. Setting related to domestic domain is determine as revealing setting because the concerned parties related to the transaction are performing their roles in such manner that goes beyond the relationships of service interaction in narrow market Law.

The provision which is related to the food, drinks, and accommodation clearly reflects the friendship and this friendship are usually maintained in domestic domain. Hospitality in domestic context creates symbolic ties between the people who are engaged in hospitality and this result in strong bond between the peoples who are sharing hospitality. In societies of pre-industrial times, treating the strangers kindly will be considered as highly values in number of societies, as stated by Heal (1990) motive behind this treatment was not solely altruistic.

Receiving strangers in the house also help the person in monitoring the behavior of such stranger. As stated by Visser (1991), relationship between the host and the guest goes far if the act of the friendship is involved. Both guest and host are originated from the common Indo-European word which actually means stranger and enemy, but in actual link related to single term is not referred so much in case of individual people as it includes the guest and the host and also the relationship between them. It is considered as the relationship which is actually based on mutual obligations such guest can become host on any other event. However, there are number of individuals who have the experience of both consuming and supplying the food, drink and accommodation in domestic context, and some individuals enter into commercial context without having such experience in domestic context.

The commercial context of hospitality takes place in most western societies where hospitality is not considered important in value system. Wider concept of hospitality establishes robust understanding of importance of hospitality activities for the purpose of providing better knowledge of commercial application of hospitality. It is not possible to reject the benefits occurred from commercial hospitality which result in various opportunities related to travel, intercourse with others, etc., commercial provision related to activities of hospitality is mainly inspired by the need of profit earned by service interaction. Hospitality activities in commercial domain, results in number of tensions and also the contradictions which can be reduced after understanding the hospitality activities in cultural and domestic domains. After considering the research done by Heal (1984), Nouwen (1998), Telfer (2000) and O’Gorman (2007), it is easy to understand the hospitality in association with human activity, and it is also possible to find number of motives because of which hosts offering hospitalities to the guests. These motives provide strong reasons to the host for providing hospitability in more kind and better way. In other words, when host provides the hospitality for the purpose of making benefit then in such situations hospitality is only offered merely for the joy and pleasure of hosting. Increasing trend of hospitality provides various business opportunities and these opportunities increased after the liberalization. When economy was opened for foreign investors, then at that time there was increment in the inflow of foreign business travellers which lead to increase in demand of five star hotels. This demand stabilizes during the period of 1991-1995 because of the friendly business environment.

However, nothing stays forever, and concept of hospitality in hospitable industry is also changed in early 2001 when recession hits the world and there is crash in the demand of hotel room. Things changed with time and hospitality industry becomes inhospitable. Telfer (2000) stated that offering food, drink and accommodation for getting the benefit is Ulterior Motives Hospitality. In this kind of hospitality, it is considered that guest is able to provide some gain to the host, and host offered the hospitality for the purpose of gaining the benefit. His can be understood with the help of example, dinner arranged for boss and client for the purpose of creating positive impression as it includes the hope that dinner ultimately benefits the host.

There is very popular phrase of Nicholo Machiavelli, “Keep your friends close, but your enemies closer”. It means providing the hospitality to the stranger is influenced by fear but it also includes the close monitoring of stranger in household. In other words, it includes the obligation to provide hospitality to all the persons no matter whom that person is, but it also state the main aim to monitor the enemy (Wagner, 1870). For this purpose, it is necessary to treat the consumers in same manner as they were guest of your own home, which means experience of hosting in domestic domain is important aspect (Ashness & Lashley, 1995).

After considering the facts related to commercial domain, it is clear that with the changing time concept of hospitality is also changed. In other words, now hospitality is done for getting benefits only such as for building brand image, influence the consumers, etc. very few societies are left in which hospitality is still considered important in the value system.

Hospitableness and its impact in lieu of above stated argument:

Activities related to the hospitality can be considered as important principle of human life, and on other side hospitableness is defined as willingness of person to be hospitable without making any expectation from the guest. In other words, hospitality can be considered as recompense, or reciprocity. Study related to hospitality from the perspective of social science stated that requirement related to the hospitable has been considered as the theme related to moral system of human beings at global level.

A study related to religions stated that hospitality is the important feature of the human morality. The study related to hospitality needs to explore the hospitality in cultural, domestic, and commercial domain. It is possible to understand the commercial domain in context of hospitality in better way with the help of other domains (Lugosi, Lynch, Morrison, 2009).

Generally, worker who is providing services will engage in emotional level, and become host while servicing their consumers and such worker provides services to consumers as personal guest. Therefore, provision related to the commercial hospitality involves the transactions which are financial in nature and it is offered to only those guests who are ready to pay for it. If guest fail to make payments then host can withdraw the services. Therefore, it is said that commercial hospitality reflects the contradiction and it cannot deliver true hospitableness (Ward & Martins, 2000; Ritzer, 2004). However, in this regard Telfer (2000) stated that this situation reminds us of simple view that people who are hospitable are already employed in bars, hotels and restaurants and offer hospitableness in lieu of commercial transactions. Also it is stated that hospitable people set up the hospitality business in guesthouses, pubs, etc., because this allowed them to earn and be hospitable at same time.

How hospitable is today’s hospitality industry:

One of the major and important issues related to the hospitality provision in commercial domain is related to the authenticity of the hospitality provided by the host. Various questions are raised such as whether commercial hospitality services are like other services or whether commercial hospitality can ever be a genuine hospitality? For this purpose, Slattery (2002) states that restaurants, bar, and cafes are completely economic in nature and it also involves activities related to management.

Study related to hospitality in context of social science has very limited utility, which states that relationship between guest and host is only an economic transaction. Ritzer (2007) provides support to this fact by stating that powerful drivers are present which drives the organizations indulged in commercial hospitality to become inhospitable. Comment made by Ritzer on McDonaldizing stated that those corporate drivers which increase the efficiency, calculability, and predictability of the organization actually act as barrier in the delivery of hospitableness. This kind of process not only reduces the performance efficiency of organization in context of hospitableness but also generate feelings of neglect in consumers as individual. Both standardizing and systemizing processes are considered as those factors which are fundamental in nature and helps in managing the hospitality in bars, restaurants, and hotels and as result it removes the hospitality from the transaction.

Telfer’s (2000) stated that commercial transactions even promote the hospitality because it provides strong motive of providing hospitality, but it actually prevents the genuine hospitality. One more researcher stated that eating out in restaurants cannot be considered as authentic hospitality because this transaction is not genuine but more economic in nature. In contrast of the views stated by Warde and Martens (2000) and Ritzer (2007), Telfer (2000), it is suggested that commercial hospitality is less than authentic version of hospitality in home. It is suggested that those individuals who have values and experience related to hospitability must work in commercial hospitality sector. Such individuals have capacity to work in their own hospitality business and they can choose the roles which suits them in hospitality. Lashley, Morrison and Randle, (2003) stated that meals which are memorable defines the emotional dimensions of the meal play important role as compared to the quality of meal in context of memorable meals. Research stated that respondents even provided the write account of their most memorable meals. These texts were subjected to semiotic analysis and also create multidimensional image of the meal which included nature of the occasion in which meal is served, fellow diners made by the company with whom they dined, atmospheres, food eaten, other characteristics, etc. the occasion related to any significant event in which social context of meal reinforced the emotional significance of the event. Significance is created and added by the hospitality settings. Meal related to any occasion and holiday general signifies the togetherness of family and friends and it also signifies special bond between them which automatically raise the importance of meal.

The actual issue behind this is that many operators of hospitality and tourism give importance to the tangible aspect of consumer affairs, such as the quality related to the food, conform of the room and facilities, drink quality, etc ., but they fail to consider the performance of their employees which creates emotional experience among the guests and result in long term satisfaction and loyalty of consumers. As stated by Herzberg’s (1966), concept related to motivation theory states the metaphor which is useful in nature and also state the physical aspects of the resort such as d?cor, physical facilities, meals, drinks, etc,.

If these standards do not consider the expectations then consumers are not satisfied with the services, and exceeding the satisfaction of consumers in these tangible aspects does not produce satisfaction (Balmer & Baum, 1993). Satisfaction of the consumer will be created by the quality of the emotions which are generated from the experiences such as performance of the staff, quality related to hospitableness, fellow dinners, performance conducted by the line management. These factors can be considered key sources which not only produce consumer satisfaction by creating emotional connection with the guests. Long term royalty of the customers are depends on the emotions generated by above stated elements. Highly satisfied hospitality and visitors in context of tourism are more likely to return and it also increases the satisfaction of consumers.

Hospitality trends in future and impact of technology on hospitality:

Hospitality industry is growing in rapid way and following are some future trends of hospitality industry:

  • Now decisions related to hospitality are taken by the millennial, and this trend is very good because common trait shared by millennial is that they share value experience related to material goods.
  • Future shows that there is huge increase in the business which automatically increase the demand of hospitality, and this increase in demand results in increasing the priority of money and brand value.
  • Hospitality industry mainly focuses on their brand value, and in future consumers mainly consider the organization which has good brand value.

Some technology trends are also there which impact the hospitality industry, and some of these impacts are stated below:

  • Marketing from social media and overlapping care of customers- in future professionals of market are trained to follow the money, and this actually means engaging the consumers in those sections where they are naturally congregate. At present stage, internet is the place where consumers are naturally congregate. One of the fastest growing tools for marketers of internet is social media.
  • Management systems related to hospitality is intelligently integrated- many businesses related to hospitality industries such as hotels, car rental agencies, etc., are used some kind of customer relationship management system for years. However, system used by these businesses becomes more sophisticated but it results in the improved levels of integration.
  • Increase the access ability with technical devices- now people can easily access anything through their technical devices such as phones and this easy access makes the things more challenging in the future.


After considering the above statements, it is clear that lot of things had been changed in hospitality with time some changes are good and others are not. This term encourages the study related to hosts, guests, and hospitableness. It states the relationship between guest and host under which host receives the guest with goodwill which also includes the reception and entertainment of guest, visitors, and strangers. Many experts define hospitality as the medium of the great soul that cares for complete universe through the ties of humanity.

The biggest change occurred in this industry is it becomes inhospitable with time and more become economic in nature. When host provides the hospitality for the purpose of making benefit then in such situations hospitality is only offered merely for the joy and pleasure of hosting. Increasing trend of hospitality provides various business opportunities and these opportunities increased after the liberalization. Therefore, it is clear that now hospitality is done for getting benefits only such as for building brand image, influence the consumers, etc. very few societies are left in which hospitality is still considered important in the value system.


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