Social And Communication: Management Essay


Is the taking of turns in conversation "mediated through signals composed of clearcut behavioural cues"?


Behavioural actions in conversation are important to understand to understand how effective the conversation is in completing the communication and transmission of information. Many experiments have been done on this issue to understand the factors of communication that effects the conversation. Here in this report the behavioural factor effecting conversation among people has been considered to understand the effects of it in completion of the communication and to know whether the behavioural factors are responsible for taking turns in conversations (Thurloe et al. 2004). In this study, some experiments made by Duncan has been considered and compared with some other experiment to come to an outcome to know how effective the system is in taking turns in conversation. Here in this report we study about the system of conversation using dialogues and behavioural cues for completing the conversation. It is important to understand how important are the behavioural cues in turning the conservation and providing positives aspects for the interpreters, i.e. the exchanger of messages. As it is already known that verbal communication is extremely important for turning the conversation into a complete and effective one, but along with the verbal communication, some behavioural aspects of the messenger is also important that affects the quality of the conversation (Wade & Tavris, 2000). For completing a communication, it is important for the person to involve some behavioural activities to make the conversation more effective. Without behavioural aspects the conversation remains incomplete. Therefore behaviour of the messenger has a positive effect on the conversation. It interacts the feeling of the messenger that helps the receiver to understand what exactly the messenger wants to say and what effective step should be taken to complete the conversation. Without the exchange of feelings through behavioural cues, the conversation always remains incomplete. Therefore with an incomplete communication, effective turns cannot be made with the conversation. Here in this study, some main keywords like, turn-taking and behavioural cues have been discussed in details to understand how the behavioural cues acts as a signal that migrates to an effective turning of the conversation. It has been found through experiments that if only behavioural cues has been used for detecting the end of the turns, it ends up with system that provides a longer mean for response time than that is found for humans, but this type of conversation has high level of risks that occurs in the form of interruption between the users. Therefore a further study has been made to understand the effectiveness of the system that will help the user to have a good turn-taking of conversation along with low risk involve in it. Here in this study the main importance is given on the hypothesis made by Duncan in which he has examined the effects of behavioural cues through experiments (Sica, 2009). The main objective of this study is to find out how the behavioural cues effects the turn taking in the conversation and how much effective the behavioural activities are in a dialogue system to attract the receivers. This study also focuses on to know how communication can be made at appropriate places to have an effective turn of conversation and how this can result into an effective conversation. But the centre of attraction in this study is the experiments made by Duncan for completing his hypothesis on turn-taking of conversation.

According to Duncan “turn-taking mechanism is mediated through signals composed of clear-cut behavioural cues”, emphasizing on the traditional dialogue system which is based on the simple model of turn taking. According to Sacks et al. (1974) the model is not clear and it fail to captivate the human-human dialogue clearly, for example, when the speaker speaks unclearly or hesitates while communicating no turn change is indicated. The model has been a subject to criticism since introduction. Ward (1996) mentioned that a low pitch region is a perfect cue and the process of backchannel feedback is effective. Koiso et al. (1998) after studying the Duncan’s model argued that both the syntactic as well as prosodic features affect the dialogue and make significant contribution in the chosen turn-taking as well as back channelling. Cathcart et al. (2003) have explained about the use of syntax in combination with pause duration is a strong prector. However Gravano & Hirschberg (2009) argued that use of a blackchannel accelerates with the number of syntactic as well as prosodic cues. Research on the concept also emphasises that there is insufficient studies based on ways in which the particular model could be used online in dialogue system and how far that would help in improving interaction. According to the rule-based mechanism of Sacks (1974) turn taking is controlled and monitored by application of rules, that applying one at a time. Though the theory of Duncan serves as a pioneer concept, yet there are other thinkers who argued and suggested additional thoughts to enrich the concept. Ward (1996) connected pitch in this context and mentioned that the region of low pitch is a fairly good predictor for back-channel feedback in casual conversational interactions. Turn taking as an integral aspect of conservation as been discussed prominently at various layers and argued by thinkers of all time.

Starkey Duncan introduced his model based on the quantitative analysis of video recording of the role of non-linguistic as well as kinesic features in the sample of dyadic conversation. The “turn taking” has been used to mean coordination of activities of speaking as well as listening in the discourse so that there is only one speaker at a time. Turn taking was based on audio conversation technique and mainly focuses on recording the audio conversations. Duncan’s method has been studied and then Sacks et al. (1974) improvised the thought by including the methods in turn taking, such as conversational analysis. According to Sacks et al. There are different types of conversation, namely answering to phone call or interacting over a cup of coffee. In every sphere the emphasis is strictly on the role of language as well as the concept of turn taking. There have been countless studies over the years on the role of single kinesic behaviours. Researchers have observed that listening plays a crucial role in the conversation. A listener looks at the speaker, similarly while speaking the approach alters.

One of the most studied models of turn-taking has been introduced by Duncan after sharing experience with the co-workers, who have used as well as identified the various forms of communication such as verbal and nonverbal signals as well as interactional rules which monitor the nature of speaking. According to Stephens (1987), Duncan has tried to develop a grammar of interaction that outlines various ways in which the smooth exchange of words could be accomplished or exchange of information is about present situation of the speaker. He further mentioned that starting point of a conversation include intonation, paralanguage and body motion. Issues in Duncan’s expression have been studied and identified by contemporary psychologists, were, prosodic features were affected by syntax as well as the way the content has been uttered. The second issue which Beattie (1981) pointed out that correlation is unreliable as it is only two occasions that the 6 turn-yielding cues jointly display. Wilson et al. (1984) mentioned that he results of the replication study show that an increase in the number of turn-yielding cues conjointly displayed actually served to decrease. Problems in the analysis of Duncan as identified are that the information about ways of completing expression is lost within the information about how different units of analysis are completed. It has been further argued that Duncan’s model on signal is misleading. Others also have put forward their opinion time ad again and the model has been severely criticised.

Different experiments has been done with the turn-taking factors of conversations that describes the management of turn which has been used as a principles set for motivating the speakers and listeners to eliminate the overlaps and gaps that occurs in the conversation. The principles help the listeners to mutually understand the Transition Relevant Places (TRPs). It has been assumed by the researchers that speakers can easily predict the TRPs that are found very precisely and in most of the cases the majority speakers change in the conversation is directly related with silence and overlap. It is assumed by most of the researchers that a turn in transition is completed with overlaps and gaps in the conversations (Schwartz, 2007). But this type of assumptions are not compatible with the theories presented by the researchers that explains turn-taking which is based on the behavioural cues that takes place near the before the start of the next turn when the speaker needs minimum 200 milliseconds to react verbally to auditory stimulus. It has been also found that the correlation of the turn endings and behavioural activities does not imply causality. In place of that is suggested that human beings must predict turn endings that are coming in the conversation by lexico-syntatic contents that alone shows the listeners accuracy for upcoming prediction of turn endings.

It has been said by Schegloff that "If, in a gedankenexperiment, one imagines a society with no turn-taking system, it would not be one that was especially impolite or uncivil. It would be one in which the very possibility - the assured possibility - of coordinated action through talk had been lost, for example, the sense of one action as responsive to another." As per him, when people of a society does not implies the turn taking system, it is not that the society is impolite or uncivil in nature but there is a possibility that people understand each other with non-verbal communication in the form of behavioural cues that acts as a signal for taking turns in the conversation. As per recent analysis it has been found that overlaps and pause are normally distributed that are suggested to be perfect adjoining transitions that are found very rarely in face to face conversations. Experiments shows that about 41 percentage to 45 percentage of speakers uses transitions that are longer than 200Ms but as per Duncan observation the turns of the speakers are separated by gaps which are longer than 200ms that suggests that Duncan’s theory on behavioural cues acting as signals for turn taking in conversation is feasible.

Intonation is a process or technique of sound changing method by which the sound is increasing as well as decreasing. The process of the sound is increases as well as decreases after than process the voice system. The Intonation is a simple method by which the intensity of the vocal cord or voice will be change to its initial position or states. The pitch of the sound is deferent.

It is a type of technique or process by which the loudness as well as the softness of the sound will measure. The loudness as well as softness of the sound source is very important part as well as important tram by which the communication processes will me more effective and affecting. It is also controlling and managing some various factors of the sound like tempo, drawling and many others. The body motion is a part of the human being body, which distributed all the weight in the human body to controlling the whole weight distribution in human body. Due to the effect of the weight and some other forces the body motion will always maintain the passion of the human body. Pitch is also known as the frequency of sound. The loudness of the sound and quality of the sound is types of sound characterize controlling and monitoring the effects of the sound (Reemtsma, 2012). By the help of the above mention technique or process controlling and monitoring the whole sound system by the help of its parameters. The pitch or loudness of the sound is not easily capture by the human ear. It’s only calculated via some supersonic instruments.

It is a common type of linguistic structure, which deals with new word making or sentence making. By the help of the Syntax we can easily create a sentences or words, according to the respected of case study, the problems will be analyst the sociocentric sequence. In se in section of the case study, the analysis part of the system or case study will be analyze by the help of some theoretical framework for the provided cased study issues or problems (Anderman & Anderman, 2009). The problems of the provided or respected case study, the issues as well as problems are solving by the help of the sociocentic sequences. The issues or problems of the provided case study will easily analyzed by the help of the sociocenti sequences or mathematical expression.

As far as the, problems or issues in the system or business model is analyzed. The most important issues or problems of the system or business model will easily analyzed or solving. Respect of the system method, the testing system or business model first work is to identify the issue or problem. In this method will we also proving the best outcomes. The most vital work or job of the system or business model is identifying the valuable information or data like “how turn taking cues from a complex signal and also affecting the listeners”. The turn taking is also belongs to a type of interview (Acar, 2014). According to the above process of the examiner of the dialogues and the other interview process of the provided business model or system, where cues are identify by the help of the above mention method. Identification of the cue is a type of the issues or problems, in this section the subject is making after listen to dyadic speeches in chronological items as well as it is also trying to look forward to whether the sign or symbol is go after a speaker changers in nature and also it is works as vice versa. In n line with Duncan's discoveries, our theory is that, the more turn-bringing signals with a specific commonsense capacity turn squashy on the other hand turn-holding ? the quicker the response time to make the judgment and the higher understanding among subjects on the normal result. The point of this study is to investigate the potential outcomes of utilizing practices that influence turn-taking in human-human discussion to produce suitable turn-taking conduct in talked dialog frameworks (Greene & Burleson, 2003). Along these lines, notwithstanding human-human dialogs, the analysis included jolts where one of the human questioners was supplanted with a manufactured voice. The inspiration to utilize a blend as opposed to a prerecorded human voice in a dialog framework is that manufactured voices are less demanding to overhaul and control on-line. Case in point, no new recordings is expected to control prosody or to develop the framework's vocabulary.

In respect of the provided case study, his paper is suggested to identifying the accurate place to speak by cues in its nature of the speaker, which is in the contact with the main resources of the business model or system. If the cues person having a mixture of the additive affects upon the listeners as like turn taking challenge. In this research paper, we will easily find out the outcomes as well as the results of the turn taking by cues. In other words, the outcomes of the system or the experiment are the result of the turn taking cues feedback (Fiedler, 2007). The goal is to research the potential outcomes of producing turn-bringing signs with a manufactured voice. In this way, in expansion to jolts acknowledged with a human voice, the examination included dialogs where one of the speakers is supplanted with a combination. The turn-taking signals examined incorporate sound, phrase-last stretching, semantic culmination, stereotyped lexical articulations also, non-lexical discourse generation phenomena, for example, lexical reiterations, breathing and lip smacks. The outcomes demonstrate that the turn-bringing prompts acknowledged with an engineered voice influence the judgments like the comparing human adaptation and there is no distinction in response times between these two situations.

After studying it may be inferred that to understand the number of non – verbal and verbal behavioural affects that are turned into dialogue. This is usually a combination that is used for the number of turn taking cues in the correlated linear listeners. The study also forecasts the examination of the findings that affect the causes of turn taking cues and are also served as the mere objective for the present study in order to investigate all the possibilities that generate the turn taking cues that too in a synthetic voice. To explore all the issues that are stated above we need to include all the dialogues that are realized along with human voice along with the dialogue that includes one of the experiments in which the voice of the speaker was replaced by the synthetic voice. The total time for analyzing the reaction time highlights the stimuli that have a higher agreement and that too irrespective of the turn taking cues and the other significant stimuli that are dealt with a lower agreement in all sectors. Even the reaction times are also used to analyze and measure the effects of the turn taking cues that are involved in this experiment.

The basic aim of the study is to explore all the hidden potentials of the turn taking cues that are found in the dialogue system and the designers that also considers that cues to affects the judgments that are stated by a majority of individuals. The turn taking cues also include the turn yielding cues, flat intonation, semantic completeness and the prospect of flat intonation. It must also be made sure that all the cues are easier to be employed in the dialogue system and the other behaviours as well that can produce turn ending prior for semantic representation.


Acar, A. (2014). Culture and social media. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Anderman, E., & Anderman, L. (2009). Psychology of classroom learning. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale Cengage Learning.

Cairns, A. (2002). Dictionary of theological terms. Greenville, SC: Ambassador Emerald International.

Clark, H. H. (1996). Using language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Duncan, S. (1972). Some Signals and Rules for Taking Speaking Turns in Conversations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23(2), 283-292.

Fiedler, K. (2007). Social communication. New York: Psychology Press.

for conversation. Language, 50, 696-735

Greene, J., & Burleson, B. (2003). Handbook of communication and social interaction skills. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Messaris, P. (2010). Review Essay: Visual Communication and Social Advocacy. Journal Of Communication, 60(1), E1-E8. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01476.x

Miller, A., & Cline, T. (2008). Educational Psychology. Hodder Education.

Myers, D. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.

Reemtsma, J. (2012). Trust and violence. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turntaking

Salkind, N., & Rasmussen, K. (2008). Encyclopedia of educational psychology. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Schwartz, D. (2007). If a Picture is Worth a Thousand Words, Why Are You Reading this Essay?.Social Psychology Quarterly, 70(4), 319-321. doi:10.1177/019027250707000401

Sica, A. (2009). Social Psychology's Neglected Past: Review Essay of Gustav Jahoda, A History of Social Psychology: From the Eighteenth-Century Enlightenment to the Second World War. Social Psychology Quarterly, 72(2), 99-104. doi:10.1177/019027250907200202

Thommen, B. (2008). Review Essay: Social Knowledge and Social Representations: Boon and Bane of Complex Integrative Concepts. Culture & Psychology, 14(2), 245-252. doi:10.1177/1354067x08089980

Thurlow, C., Tomic, A., & Lengel, L. (2004). Computer mediated communication. London: SAGE.

Wade, C., & Tavris, C. (2000). Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

How to cite this essay: