Skin cancer is the abnormal growth of the cells of the skin that is exposed to the rays of the sun. It develops dry and scaly patches with precancerous or spot growths. There are three types of skin cancer; basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.
Treatment for Three Types of Cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)
- electrodesiccation and curettage- It is the most common treatment and repeated many a times to remove the cancer.
- Excision- It is the cutting of the tumor along the normal skin cancer.
- Mohs surgery- It is the best cure for the treatment of large tumors, although, time consuming and complex.
Radiation therapy- It is useful when the tumors are hard to treat surgically.
Photodynamic therapy, Immune response modifiers or topical chemotherapy These options are applicable for the tumors that have not grown so deep into the skin.
Cryotherapy- It is used for small BCCs.
During the metastasizing stage that cannot be cured by surgery or radiation therapy with targeted drugs like sonidegib or vismodegib (Berking et al. 2014).
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)
Apart from treatment options used in BCC, there are:
Lymph node dissection- It is the removal of nearby, regional lymph nodes.
Systemic chemotherapy- It is used when tumor spread to distant organs or lymph nodes (Singla et al. 2015).
Apart from the above treatment options,
There are immunotherapy and targeted therapy with inhibitors that prevents the cancer from growing by boosting immune system and blocking the cell signaling pathways (Lee et al. 2013).
Side effects in skin cancer treatment- skin rashes, blistering, peeling, hair loss, rash, itchy skin, change in color, damage to teeth or saliva-making glands if present near structures (Sim?es, Sousa and Pais 2015).
Berking, C., Hauschild, A., K?lbl, O., Mast, G. and Gutzmer, R., 2014. Basal cell carcinoma-treatments for the commonest skin cancer. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 111(22), pp.389-95.
Lee, C., Collichio, F., Ollila, D. and Moschos, S., 2013. Historical review of melanoma treatment and outcomes. Clinics in dermatology, 31(2), pp.141-147.
Sim?es, M.C.F., Sousa, J.J.S. and Pais, A.A.C.C., 2015. Skin cancer and new treatment perspectives: A review. Cancer letters, 357(1), pp.8-42.
Singla, A., Garg, U., Singla, B. and Garg, A., 2015. Squamous cell carcinoma of tympanomastoid region–A rare and often misdiagnosed entity.