The decision of introducing a democratic and participatory supervision process for was taken as there was evidence of lack of suitable planning connected to the direction, resulting in poor management of school supervision, lack of coordination and responsibility among the staffs, obsolete curriculum, lack of up gradation of the latest technologies which resulted in lower rate of student admission for the past few years. As the parents demand ‘value’ for money taking such decisions became mandatory and those involved:
- New reforms
- Recollecting the right kind of human resources
- Foresight and approach
- Assistance ("A Brief History of Decision Making", 2006).
In the present discussion, we will be discussing the effect of introducing Human Resource Planning in our educational Institution by the Director and his associates. Making such decisions, not only involve motivational programs, but also incentive plans for additional participation and engagement of employees in an institution (Hutchel & Molet, 1986). The chief purpose of this is towards the achievement of goals of proper functioning through an appropriate and systematic approach towards the establishment of the base of our educational institution. The decision was made through the process of introducing regular quality improvement and quality monitoring as well as sourcing the right resource in several units of our Educational Institution. The aspects that influenced the decision were the introduction of:
Trend Study: The projection may done by defining, indexation, extrapolation, and numerical analysis
Work Analysis: This is reliant on upon the nature of work in a department
Expert Forecast: This includes familiar decisions and formal expert surveys
Work Analysis: Allowances needs to be made for manpower requirements
Occupational programs: This can be developed and outlined according to the requirements
Training Programs: Based on expansion, diversification, skills, knowledge and capabilities.
The outcome of the decision was that there was actual utilization of management personnel that helped in the implementation of the managerial services and activities. The decision not only aided in deciding how to put the right man in the right job but also comprised of deciding on the several motivational programs like incentive strategies needs to be mounted for future participation (Gabor, 1976).
Rational decision making analysis
Rational decision making is a step-by-step method to reach at a decision. The decision maker comes with the best possible solution to a problem through this. Practitioners in my educational institution set-up are teachers, head of the organisation, supervisors, officers, inspectors or teacher educators (Olden & Patterson, 2000). Everybody is interested in bringing a modification for the up gradation in the operational zones where they have a functional responsibility. Rational decision making process model has been used in spheres where competencies could be enhanced. Balanced thinking helped us to identify and have a strong vision to the difficult situation which is helpful in recognizing ways and resources to solve the problems. But it is the non-programmed judgment which are responses to that particular situation which is unique and has not been met earlier.
The Rational decision making model that has been applied here consists of five steps:
Identification of the problem. The problem in the present case scenario is mismanagement. There are an inadequate number of supervisors and teacher educators and also their lack of ability to make a positive influence on the whole teaching-learning process of the institution.
Once the problem is recognized the next stage is the collection of the data and also formulate a list of alternative actions. Soliciting information from numerous sources develops the value of options generated. This is done through multiple sources like Interviewing, Attendance sheet examination, scrutinizing the task-completion, the success rate of the work assigned, questionnaires and performances.
In Rational decision making a solution is chosen from the list of options which includes a list of programs for planning and identifying the available talents and items of the training programs. All recruitment and selection programs should have been based on proper planning. But in the present workplace environment, this step was followed partly as the selection has been made through the process of random selection from the available resources.
The next step is the implementation of the planning done which demands visualizing the future. The visualization must be interpreted efficiently into action by the process of:
- Examining the present manpower list
- Making forthcoming placement prediction
- Developing service agendas
- Planning training programs
Identifying each of these tasks that needs completion, requires the formulation of the objectives which is critical for the achievement of the decision-making process. The present workplace decisions do not involve all the steps of the above actions. It implements the rational model partly by examining certain areas of expertise such as planning programs for the training and examining the existing man-power list, along with designing the training programs.
After the identification of the problem, the evaluation is made of its successful implementation and the success of the decisions taken, and the planning process needs constant monitoring. The Rational decision making model has been shown below:
Source: www.pathways .cu.edu.eg
The method of implementing the decision making model has helped in developing a suitable method of assigning the right person to do managerial activities, official work, supervising the planning process, making the forecast about institutional requirements, developing skill amidst the staff members and improving the ability to make responsible decisions(Machina, 1981).
Bounded rational decision-making analysis
The world around us is both complex and huge so when tougher problems necessitate more thought, it often increases the mental load and playing inside the bounds of rationality gives an individual few standards, or halt their current boundaries. And bounded rationality identifies that it is hard to examine and comprehend all of the possibly significant evidence in making selections. The only conceivable way of managing with the complication of the situation is to improve habits, techniques as well as standard operating procedures that are (SOP) to enable taking decisions. As Herbert Simon specified that there are two chief reasons of bounded rationality:
- The arrangement where the mind operates
- Boundaries of our human mind (Dean & Sharfman, 1996)
In the present work-place scenario, bounded rationality has been based on the fact that decision -makers are unable to process every information even if they had it. So to predict people's actions, identification of the cognitive process is necessary, which is a drawback in the present scenario.
Institutionalists often argue for added substances in utility function about bounded rationality as they simplify to interpret it. It has been noticed that in our institution, individuals are unable to handle many items together. Moreover, the things that are considered in a particular decision were different from the items in another situation, this confused the decision makers to the right path. However, to study the potential issues that might have bounded the individual’s decision that has been assigned to the cognitive limits of the decision maker involves both computational capacity and knowledge. There was lack of understanding in this arena. The generation of statistical data, as well as viable substitute is a lengthy and costly procedure where real-life situations can hardly be assured. Lack of proper knowledge and limited ability to predict the future, inadequacy in the scientific theories used, and inaccuracy of predictions also played a central part in shaping the potential issues of bounded rational decision making in the present scenario.
However, there are numerous benefits of this decision making. It may be summed up as organizational, general and individual. One of the chief benefits concerns an active way of bringing an active change and to solve a wide range of present management problems. The second advantage is that the logic and reason has been balanced by divergence and creativity throughout the whole process (Georgakakos & Graham, 2008). It offers the group and the individual with augmented confidence that a right decision has been made, though attaining that decision require extra time. Another prime benefit of this process in our institution was that it permitted an individual to comprehend the problem sensibly before considering other options. Moreover, the method contains built-in step to reflect might be wrong if precise explanations are designated. Finally, the use of a problem solving procedures enhanced the growth of unity inside the institution. If everybody is using a similar method of problem solving, then consensus or agreement is much easy to attain. Such combined action usually produces superior consequences than non-unified action. It has been believed that three features are essential for decision making and problem solving, a suitable level of communication and thinking skills, an information base, and a strategy and the systematized approach to solving problems ("Bounded Rationality," 2012).But there are some potential limitations of bounded rationality. The time decision makers devoted to their own practices, so monitoring closely become hard. Most often there is a criticism about the validity of the research process, biased data gathering, and analysis and to some extent unfamiliarity with the research methods that led to unreliability in the gathered data but this unreliability is at times inevitable. Representation of the process of decision making may confuse, rather than enlighten as these representations may be unduly complicated.
The implementation of bounded rational decision making is necessary for some reasons stated above so it is advisable that there should be a generalizable but flexible method to solve the problems which would lead to the betterment of self and the institution in general and help in the achievement of the goals.
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