Server Roles Research Report And Network Server Operating Systems Research Report Essay

Task 1 – Server Roles Research Report

Network Time Protocol (NTP) Server

Functions of NTP Server

An NTP server is used to synchronize all participating computers to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Accurate clocks have a crucial role in every aspect of managing, securing, planning, and debugging a network to determine when events happen.

Specific Requirements for NTP Server

Identify any specific requirements for the server, hardware, operating system etc.

Example Use of NTP Server Role

You would use an NTP server to synchronize devices on the network to within a few milliseconds of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). You would use synchronisation for things such as planned maintenance and troubleshooting.

Domain Name System (DNS) Server

Functions of DNS Server

The main function of a DNS server is to translate domain names into IP Addresses, which computers can understand.

Specific Requirements for DNS Server

There are no specific requirements for running a DNS server. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and operating system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of DNS Server Role

You would use a DNS server to translate domain names in IP addresses. For example, it’s much easier to remember www.google.com rather than a string of numbers (The IP Address)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server

Functions of DHCP Server

DHCP servers assign or lease IP addresses to computers and other devices that are enabled as DHCP clients on the network. A DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network from a range of IP addresses. DHCP can also be set to reserve specific IP addresses to certain devices.

Specific Requirements for DHCP Server

DHCP is a lightweight role, therefore there are no specific requirements other than an Ethernet connection and users. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and operating system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of DHCP Server Role

You would use a DHCP server to assign either Class A, B, or C IP Range [most common] and automatically assign every device connected to the subnet an IP address.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Server

Functions of FTP Server

As the name suggests, FTP is used to transfer data and files between devices on a network. FTP can be used to exchange files between computer accounts, transfer files between an account and a desktop computer, or access online software archives.

Specific Requirements for FTP Server

There are no specific requirements for running a Proxy server. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and operating system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of FTP Server Role

An example of FTP is to use it as a way to share files. One person may upload a file to an FTP server, then share a link to it with another person. Although this sort of usage has become less common with modern cloud services, some may prefer to have their data and files hosted on a home server, and use FTP to enable that.

Global Catalogue (GC) Server

Functions of GC Server

A global catalog is a distributed data repository that is used for faster searching. It provides a searchable, partial representation of every object in every domain in a multi-domain Active Directory forest.

Specific Requirements for GC Server

Global catalog servers have the following dependencies and requirements for interactions with other Windows Server technologies

Active Directory installation Net Logon service

Active Directory replication Domain controller Locator.

Domain Name System (DNS)

Example Use of GC Server Role

You would use a GC to speed up the searching of objects in a domain. For example, you would use a global catalog for quicker searches of specific users in a domain. They can also be used for Universal group membership caching and Exchange address book lookups.

Web Server

Functions of Web Server

The function of a web server is to store, process and deliver web pages to clients and users. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used for intercommunication between the server and client. However a web server is not exposed to the public and is used internally, then it is called Intranet Server.

Specific Requirements for Web Server

There are no specific requirements for running a Web server. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and operating system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of Web Server Role

You would use a web server to store web site files and broadcast them over the internet for site visitor’s to see. E.g. you run an educational institution and need a website for information about the institution, you would therefore have a web server to run a web site so that site visitors can access information and other details.

Proxy Server

Functions of Proxy Server

A proxy server acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. It allows you to go online and be seen under a different IP address. Proxy servers can improve web performance by storing a copy of frequently used webpages. It can also be used as a firewall.

Specific Requirements for Proxy Server

There are no specific requirements for running a Proxy server. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and operating system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of Proxy Server Role

In an enterprise, a proxy server is used to facilitate security, administrative control or caching services, among other purposes. However in a personal computing context, proxy servers are used to enable user privacy, anonymous surfing and access region restricted content that would otherwise be inaccessible

File Server

Functions of File Server

File Servers provide a central location for storing and sharing files across a network. When multiple users require access to the same files and application data.

Specific Requirements for File Server

There are no specific requirements for this role, however one should ensure that there is sufficient storage space to use for storing files.

Example Use of File Server Role

Mail Server

Functions of Mail Server

A mail server (also referred to an e-mail server) handles and delivers e-mail over a network, usually over the Internet. A mail server receives e-mails from client computers and deliver them to other mail servers.

Specific Requirements for Mail Server

There are no specific requirements for running a mail server other than an intranet or internet connection. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of Mail Server Role

You are running the mail server for tafeqld.edu.au, outside mail comes directly to you with minimal wait time. It’s usually ready in seconds, traffic would be as high. Even with high traffic, mail will still be ready faster than it would if stored elsewhere.

Remote Access Server (RAS)

Functions of RAS Server

A Remote Access Server’s function is to connect client to a host computer, typically to gain access to files and print services on the Local Area Network from a remote location.

Specific Requirements for RAS Server

There are no specific requirements for running a remote access server other than an internet connection. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of RAS Server Role

A user can connect to a network from home and once authenticated, allows administrators to manage, configure and monitor network access. It can also allow end users within an organization to securely access files, documents and other resources.

Virtual Private Network (VPN) Server

Functions of VPN Server

A VPN Server’s main function is to secure a private network, using encryption and other security to ensure that only authorized users can access the network and that the data cannot be intercepted. A VPN Server transmits data between two locations via an encrypted tunnel that cannot be read by anyone else.

Specific Requirements for VPN Server

There are no specific requirements for running a VPN server other than an internet connection. The minimum hardware specifications however are dependent on the traffic and system it is deployed on. The system in use should have at a minimum, the basic requirements for running the installed operating system.

Example Use of VPN Server Role

You would use a VPN Server to secure both a company’s private network and the outside network through which the user connects through. It can be used to transmit data between two locations via an encrypted tunnel that cannot be read by anyone else. (E.g. business information, private files and other sensitive data.)

Task 2 – Network Server Operating Systems Research Report

Compare features of the different network operating systems

Feature Network Server Operating Systems

Windows Server 2008 Windows server 2012 Windows Server 2016 Ubuntu Linux Server 16.04.2 LTS

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server 7

Windows Server 2008

Hardware Requirements

The official requirements for installing Windows Server 2008 are as follows:

2008 2008 R2

Minimum Recommended Minimum Recommended

CPU 1GHz (IA-32)

1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster 1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium) 2 GHz or faster

RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater 512 MB 2 GB or greater

HDD Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB

Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB 40 GB or greater Foundation: 10 GB

Other editions: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB

Other editions: 32 GB

Devices DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse

Special Requirements

To run Windows Server 2008 R2, you require a 64bit system.

Installation/Deployment Options

List all installation/deployment options for the server operating system

Compatibility

Windows server 2008 R2 is not compatible with 32bit systems. UDDI Services were removed from Server 2008 R2. Since Microsoft Server 2008’s release, continuous updates have been released which eliminate most known compatibility issues.

Roles and Services Supported

The roles supported by this operating system are as follows:

Active Directory Certificate Services File Services

Active Directory Domain Services Hyper-V

Active Directory Federation Services Network Policy and Access Services

Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services. Print Services

Active Directory Rights Management Services. Terminal Services

Application Server Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) Services

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Server Web Server (IIS)

DNS Server Windows Deployment Services (WDS)

Fax Server

Windows Server 2012

Hardware Requirements

The official requirements for installing Windows Server 2012 are as follows:

2008

Minimum Recommended

CPU 1.4 GHz 64Bit 2 GHz or faster

RAM 512 MB 2 GB or greater

HDD[a]

Other editions, 32-bit: 20 GB

Other editions, 64-bit: 32 GB

Foundation: 10 GB[38] 40 GB or greater

Devices DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse

Special Requirements

To run Windows Server 2012, a 64bit system is required.

Installation/Deployment Options

Installation can be done from a local interchangeable drive (E.g. DVD, USB) or via the network.

Local: All necessary data is delivered on the boot media. Depending on the selected installation, a network connection or add-on media may be necessary.

Networked Installation – There are three main technologies available for networked deployment of Server 2008.

Windows Deployment Services role (WDS)

Microsoft Deployment Solutions Accelerator (MD)

System Center Configuration Manager (SCCM)

These components provide a complete deployment upgrade path starting with WDS, going through MD, and culminating with SCCM. Each provides a superset of features with respect to its predecessor. There technologies allow you to deploy operating systems, deploy software applications and deploy software updates

Compatibility

Roles and Services Supported

Active Directory Certificate Services File and Storage Services

Active Directory Domain Services Hyper-V

Active Directory Federation Services Network Policy and Access Services

Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services Print and Document Services

Active Directory Rights Management Services Remote Access

Application Server Remote Desktop Services

DHCP Server Volume Activation Services

DNS Server Web Server (IIS)

Fax Server

Windows Server 2016

Hardware Requirements

Component Minimum System Requirement

Processor

1.4 GHz 64-bit processor

  • Compatible with x64 instruction set
  • Supports NX and DEP
  • Supports CMPXCHG16b, LAHF/SAHF, and PrefetchW
  • Supports Second Level Address Translation (EPT or NPT)

Memory

512 MB (2 GB for Server with Desktop Experience installation option)

ECC (Error Correcting Code) type or similar technology

Network Adapter

An Ethernet adapter capable of at least gigabit throughput

  • Compliant with the PCI Express architecture specification./li>
  • Supports Pre-boot Execution Environment (PXE)./li>
  • Disk space
  • Minimum 32 GB
  • Storage adapter that is compliant with the PCI Express architecture specification. /li>
  • Persistent storage devices on servers classified as hard disk drives must not be PATA. /li>
  • Windows Server 2016 does not allow ATA/PATA/IDE/EIDE for boot, page, or data drives./li>
  • Drive DVD-ROM drive, local or network accessible/li>
  • Special Requirements/li>
  • To run Windows Server 2016, a 64bit system is required./li>
  • The following items are not strictly required for operation of Windows Server 2016, but are however necessary for certain features:/li>
  • UEFI 2.3.1c-based system and firmware that supports secure boot/li>
  • Trusted Platform Module/li>
  • Graphics device and monitor capable of Super VGA (1024 x 768) or higher-resolution/li>
  • Keyboard and Microsoft® mouse (or other compatible pointing device)/li>
  • Internet access/li>

Installation/Deployment Options

Deployment of Windows Server 2016 is similar to the deployment of previous versions. Windows Server 2016 comes in two editions: Standard and Datacenter. Both editions are deployable in full GUI or Core modes. The installation of Windows Server 2016 is a straight forward process and should not take much time, whether it is being deployed on a physical piece of bare metal hardware or deployed within a VM.

Compatibility

Roles and Services Supported

Windows Server 2016 roles available Role services Windows Server 2016 Standard Windows Server 2016 Datacenter

Active Directory Certificate Services Yes Yes

Active Directory Domain Services Yes Yes

Active Directory Federation Services Yes Yes

AD Lightweight Directory Services Yes Yes

AD Rights Management Services Yes Yes

Device Health Attestation Yes Yes

DHCP Server Yes Yes

DNS Server Yes Yes

Fax Server Yes Yes

File and Storage Services File Server Yes Yes

File and Storage Services BranchCache for Network Files Yes Yes

File and Storage Services Data Deduplication Yes Yes

File and Storage Services DFS Namespaces Yes Yes

File and Storage Services DFS Replication Yes Yes

File and Storage Services File Server Resource Manager Yes Yes

File and Storage Services File Server VSS Agent Service Yes Yes

File and Storage Services iSCSI Target Server Yes Yes

File and Storage Services iSCSI Target Storage Provider Yes Yes

File and Storage Services Server for NFS Yes Yes

File and Storage Services Work Folders Yes Yes

File and Storage Services Storage Services Yes Yes

Host Guardian Service Yes Yes

Hyper-V Yes Yes; including Shielded Virtual Machines

MultiPoint Services Yes Yes

Network Controller No Yes

Network Policy and Access Services Yes, when installed as Server with Desktop Experience Yes, when installed as Server with Desktop Experience

Print and Document Services Yes Yes

Remote Access Yes Yes

Remote Desktop Services Yes Yes

Volume Activation Services Yes Yes

Web Services (IIS) Yes Yes

Windows Deployment Services Yes, when installed as Server with Desktop Experience Yes, when installed as Server with Desktop Experience

Windows Server Essentials Experience Yes Yes

Ubuntu Linux Server 16.04.2 LTS

Hardware Requirements

Install Type Install Method PROCESSOR RAM Hard Drive Space

Base System All Tasks Installed

Server (Standard) Debian-Installer 1 GHz 512 MB 1.5 GB 2.5 GB

Live Server 1 GHz (amd64 only) 1 GB 1.5 GB n/a

Server (Minimal) Debian-Installer 300 MHz 384 MB 1.5 GB 2.5 GB

Special Requirements

There are no special requirements for this operating system. However, the maximum number of CPUs supported by software design is 8192 for both Intel 64 and AMD64.

Installation/Deployment Options

Compatibility

Roles and Services Supported

SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12

Hardware Requirements

Component Minimum System Requirement

Processor

All CPUs available on the market to date are supported.

Memory

512 MB of memory is required for a minimal installation.

  • Recommended 1024 MB or 512 MB per CPU
  • 150 MB for a remote installation via HTTP or FTP
  • Disk space
  • System: 800 MB – 1GB
  • X Window System: 1.4 GB
  • GNOME Desktop: 3.5 GB
  • All patterns: 8.5 GB
  • Using snapshots for virtualization: min. 8 GB

Special Requirements

There are no special requirements for this operating system. However, the maximum number of CPUs supported by software design is 8192 for both Intel 64 and AMD64.

Installation/Deployment Options

Installation can be done from a local interchangeable drive (E.g. DVD, USB) or over a network.

Local: All necessary data is delivered on the boot media. Depending on the selected installation, a network connection or add-on media may be necessary.

Networked Installation – For installation of several systems, providing the installation media over the network makes things a lot easier. It is possible to install from many common protocols, such as NFS, HTTP, FTP, or SMB.

Compatibility

Roles and Services Supported

Red Hat Linux Enterprise Server 7

Hardware Requirements

Component Minimum System Requirement

Processor x86

  • Itanium 2
  • x86_64
  • POWER
  • System z

Memory

1GB minimum (1 GB per logical CPU recommended)

Disk space

10GB minimum/20GB recommended

Special Requirements

Maximum logical CPUs

x86 N/A

Itanium 2 N/A

x86_64 768 [5120]

POWER 768 [2048]

System z 256 (z13)

Maximum memory5

x86 N/A

Itanium 2 N/A

x86_64 12TB [64TB]

POWER 32TB

System z 10TB (z13)

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