The topic of self-healing concrete is an innovation in the field of concrete structures that are mostly used in the construction industry. It can be said that the self-healing concrete is responsible for solving many issues in the construction industry in the perspective of the construction of the structure of the bridges to the foundation of the buildings. Traditional concrete has many flaws regarding to crack that will subject to tension. There are different healing mechanisms of concrete can heal small cracks by its autogenously healing capacity. However, it can be said that with the use of modern technology the standards of construction has reached to a new level. The innovation of self-healing concrete has helped in increasing the life of the buildings in terms of leaks, bending and cracks. The purpose statement of the innovation is the effective utilization of the innovation concept in the construction industry by the engineers with effective utilization of technology.
Function of Innovation
The function of innovation of self-healing concrete is based on using bacteria to extend the life of the constructions of different architectures. The material is also known as bio-concrete which can self-heal. The bacteria that are used in the cement mixture are either Sporosarcina pasteurii or Bacillus pseudofirmus. It is found that these bacteria can sustain for a long time without food and oxygen. These bacteria can stagger up to 200 years. They becomes dormant at this stage and with the contact of water they use calcium lactate for their food in order to produce limestone that closes the cracks (Van Stappen et al., 2016).
Advantage of Innovation
There are many advantages of the innovation of the self-healing concrete in the construction industry. They are described in the following:
- This formula is a scientifically explainable, well known healing process of small cracks in the concrete.
- Ample amount of knowledge and concepts of the on the agents using the different types of mechanisms of the self-healing concrete through different literatures should be gained.
- It is considered as a better control cement and self-healing concrete that is working as a compatible healing agent (Van Belleghem et al., 2016).
- The costs of the elements are relevantly less than different types of epoxy-based agents.
- The most important advantage of the innovation of self-healing concrete is the longer lifespan of the various structures and buildings along with minimized repairing of the concrete.
- The healing capacity of the concrete and the recovery system of the mechanical properties of the concrete are very high (Zhang et al., 2016).
- The aspect of multiple healing can be done using the concrete in the same site that is being damaged.
- The self-healing concrete will help in self-repairing of the cracks without any types of external aide.
- Flexural strength as well as compressive strength increases significantly when compared to normal concrete.
- The concrete has a resistance towards various freeze thaw attacks.
- The self-healing concrete has the power of reduction in the permeability of concrete.
- The reduction in the corrosion of the steel that has been occurring due to formation of cracks eventually improves the durability of the steel that reinforced the concrete.
- The most important aspect of using the Bacillus bacteria is that they do not cause any harm to the human life. Hence, it can be used effectively and efficiently (Zhu et al., 2015).
Drawbacks of the Innovation
Apart from having many advantages of self-healing concrete, there are many drawbacks of this innovation faced by the users of this concrete in the practical field of work. However, it can be said that the main disadvantage of using this process in the concrete. The disadvantages of the innovation of self-healing concrete are discussed below.
- The main aspect of disadvantage of bacterial self-healing concrete is the cost. It is pointed out that the cost of the bacterial concrete is almost double than the conventional concrete.
- The growth of the bacteria used in the self-healing concrete does not thrive well in all types of atmosphere and in any types of media. Therefore, the process of healing of the cracks in different temperatures varies (Tang, Kardani & Cui, 2015).
- The clay pallet that holds the self-healing agent of the concrete sometimes is considered as a fault zone or shear zone in the cement mix.
- However, it can be said that the clay pellets consists of almost 20% in the volume of the concrete.
- The clay is very much weaker than the normal concrete. Hence, the strength of the cement gets reduced in terms of compressive strength (Silva et al., 2016).
- The percentage of clay can be a problem to the construction of high rise buildings as these buildings requires high compressive strength concrete.
- The design of the concrete mix with the different forms of bacteria is not available in all parts of the world.
- The process of investigation of the calcite precipitate is very much costly.
- The installation of a vascular network system is very difficult while casting concrete.
- In passive vascular network, sometimes the healing agent is released in an inefficient manner.
- Loss of mechanical properties in the concrete is possible (Van Belleghem et al., 2016).
Conclusion and Recommendations
The above study focuses on the different aspects of the innovation of self-healing concrete in the society. The function of the innovation in the society works has a vast impact in the construction industry. However, there are also many drawbacks in the implementation of the process in the practical scenario. The mechanisms of implementing the concept of self-healing concrete by the engineers of the construction industry are described in details.
Based on the drawbacks of the innovation of the self-healing concrete, the recommendations are provided so that the concrete mix can be used and widely available in different parts of the world. The cost of the concrete must be reduced so that it can be availed by most of the builders. Secondly, technologies are to be used so that the percentage of clay can be reduced while increasing the compressive strength of the cement. Innovations are to be done in the proper utilization of the bacteria in the concrete mix at all types of temperatures so that the effectiveness remains the same (Dong et al., 2014).
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