ENGLISH 101. ACADEMIC WRITING
Dr. G's five-step method for essay writing
I acquired through three level programs and years of legal and technical writing making use of this fundamental five-step method. I understand so it works. --Dr G.
List, team, write, conclude, introduce
This paper models the writing of an university essay exam on Plato's dialogues. It demonstrates a procedure of composing which you can use with any topic--Socrates as a teacher or any other essay subject. I will suggest a five-step procedure: list, team, compose, conclude, introduce.
1. LIST. First, we made a summary of the details in Plato that I perhaps could possibly use within the body of my essay. My «active» reading of dialogues actually paid down here. Inside my reading, I'd highlighted key passages within the text, and I had made notes inside margins and listings on several blank pages within the book. This pre-writing task allowed me, when I ready the exam, to skim through marked up dialogues and rather quickly find at least 58 details that might be beneficial in an essay on Socrates as teacher. If I hadn't made highlights and records when I see the dialogues, by the time associated with exam We would have forgotten all but eight or ten of the items! Simply put, i'd experienced small content for the essay. My COW will be down seriously to OW! really, this could have spelled bull.
2. GROUP. Then, we reorganized my directory of details into a few rational teams. That is, I took the facts from the chronological purchase, which i discovered them within the guide, and I sorted them into general categories. This «grouping» activity aided me personally to determine the dwelling that my essay could simply take. First I grouped things by which Socrates claims never to be a teacher (I took place to notice these first); however grouped things in which it is obvious he teaches. Then, I grouped items by what he shows, then we developed another group on what he shows. Finally, some of the staying details fit a category that I called «teaching back ground.» There were a few leftovers that I didn't know very well what to do with, so I left them unsorted within the miscellaneous heap. (Note: an alternate to grouping is outlining. Together with your detail list at your fingertips, you'll compose an overview that incorporates all or most of the details under headings and subheadings you devise. We happen to prefer the physical process of grouping, possibly because I'm always sorting and filing documents in filing systems.)
3. WRITE. I quickly was willing to begin composing. We skipped the introduction paragraph and started composing the «body» or middle paragraphs of this essay. The grouping activity in next step showed me personally exactly how these paragraphs could possibly be arranged and arranged. The teams ended up being: General Background, Socrates perhaps not a Teacher, Socrates an instructor, just what He Taught, exactly how He Taught, and (for leftovers) Miscellaneous. We designed to compose a body paragraph for each team except naturally Miscellaneous. As I wrote, however, i came across that some groups contained way too many essential details for just one paragraph, and so I had written multiple human anatomy paragraphs on these sub-topics («Not a Teacher» and «just what He Taught»). As time ran short, I needed seriously to write my conclusion and introduction in a rush, therefore I must eliminate my last sub-topic from the essay entirely («just how He Taught»).
4. CONCLUDE. Then, we composed the concluding paragraph and the Works Cited list. In conclusion was simply a summary of your body paragraphs.
5. INTRODUCE. Finally, I published another summary paragraph, an even more brief summary in numerous words, and I also put it first in the essay, since the basic paragraph. I have discovered your introduction is the most important area of any essay. The opening creates the all-important first impression inside reader. To publish this area first, if your wanting to know the real contents of whatever else within essay, is inviting catastrophe. Most pupils' essays have lousy introductions since they never have yet started with their subjects and do not understand what they will compose. («There are a lot of things one could state concerning the character of Socrates in Plato's book entitled Five Dialogues. ..» In an introduction such as this, the reader hears the pupil wondering aloud how to start off. It's simple bland drivel.)
TIMING? I invested about couple of hours carefully making my range of details from book (step 1) and a lot of of some other hour grouping record and contemplating technique for organizing the order of body paragraphs (2). Which was my planning «before course.» (pupil preparations should take much longer, since students are less familiar with the book and less familiar with planning essays.) I quickly allowed an hour or so and forty minutes «in class» to accomplish the actual writing (steps 3-5). The essay that I composed is definately not perfect because time went out, but I reveal it right here as a sample or demonstration of just how essays can be developed from readings to an initial rough draft.
Listed here is the record of could work, step by step.
Beginning with a textbook full of notes and underlining, I spent just five hours working up my essay.
Collecting evidence is the most essential action. Without proof, there's no case. Spend whatever time it requires to gather every one of the appropriate facts that point enables.
I used yellow marker to recognize the things belonging to my first logical grouping in regards to the «General Back- ground.»
Other colors then had been always emphasize the things for my other rational groupings.
From exact same item list that we developed, you might have develop an entirely different group of rational groupings. As well as in the event that you had some of the exact same group headings that we decided on, you might have classified a number of the products differently than I did.
There was more than one «right» response. I am advocating a way right here, not a certain solution.
I speculate slightly within my summary, but We make my introduction more straight forward. Good intros simply tell what the niche is, exactly how it'll be investigated, and just what the typical summary may be. The final of these products may be the thesis declaration.First, we made a summary of most of the facts that appeared to have bearing on my topic, Socrates as instructor. I had highlighted or noted every one of the items while We earnestly see the dialogues, so that it was simple to pick them away by skimming back through the guide. I wished I knew shorthand.
Record the important points (step one)
Euthyphro: Soc is accused of corrupting the youth (2c-3a)
Athenians aren't getting crazy with clever people unless they teach, says Soc (3c)
Soc speaks with everyone but never ever charges a cost (3d)
Is Soc Euthy's teacher?
Soc pretends become Euthy's pupil and tries to discover (3d)(5a)
But Euthy doesn't know and can't assist Soc be wise in faith (15d)
Soc leads Euthy in discussion through q&a [question and solution]
Soc has trouble believing old tales for the gods (6a)
Apology: «Socrates» in Clouds is an imaginative teacher of argument and nat science (18b)
Meletus' indictment portrays Soc the same way as Clouds (19b)
Soc doesn't try to teach individuals and charge a fee (19e)
Other teachers in Athens: Gorgias, Hippias, Evenus (19e)
Soc will not understand things and so can't teach like Evenus (20c)
Soc has gained track record of wisdom as a result of Apollo's oracle (20e)
Soc is wisest because he could be many alert to their ignorance (21d)
Pols, poets and crafts ppl claim to be smart but are not.
Young flock to hear Soc because they enjoy their cross examinations (23c)(33c)
Younger additionally imitate Socrates' examinations (23d)
Meletus states that everyone educates the young and means they are better (24d)
Meletus claims that just Soc corrupts young adults (25b)
Meletus states that Soc corrupts teenagers intentionally (25d)
Meletus claims that Soc is an Atheist (26c). teaches that sunlight is a stone
i will be perhaps not Anaxagoras (26d)
i'll never stop exercising philosophy and exhorting you (29d)
Aren't you ashamed to pursue money, reputation and honor as opposed to truth,
understanding and excellence of the souls? (29e)
their «message» on young is warn against materialism (30b)
i'm an annoying gadfly (30e)
i've never arranged as any guy's teacher (33a)
i've never ever guaranteed or imparted any training to anyone (33b)
No victims come forward to claim they've been corrupted by Soc (34b)
I tried to persuade you not to think more of practical benefits than of one's
mental and moral health (36c)
The unexamined life is not worth residing (38a)
Soc criticizes the Athenians conduct of these life (39c)
Crito: Does Soc teach Crito?
We must depend on professionals (47d)
Socrates primary teachings: one must not get back incorrect for incorrect (49b)
Socrates ended up being educated in music and gymnastics (50d)
For the education of their children it is better for him to perish (54b)
Phaedo: This discussion depicts Socrates as educator
Method of ed is a conversation among philosophers (59a)
Philosophy is an art, the greatest one (61a)
time is spent speculating on next life, what it's like (61e)
The philosopher welcomes death (61c) whenever heart separates from human body (64c)(67d)
Philosopher rehearses for death by despising the body (64d)
Mystery faith is related to philosophy (69c)
evidence that the soul exists before birth (71d) reincarnation (72b)
Doctrine that learning is just «recollection» (73a), past knowledge (75a)
Sticks and stones, equality (74b)
To «know» is merely to «recall» a period whenever heart was pure (75b)
Socrates as magician (78a)
Philosophy releases the heart from imprisonment within the body (82e)
Swan track, prophet of Apollo (85b)
Our objective is always to learn to argue precisely and discover the facts (91a)
Soc may not be persuasive but wants only to persuade himself (91b)
Soc learned nat technology from Anaxagoras but had been dissatisfied (96a-97c)
Anaxagoras had been concerned with his body maybe not their soul (98e)
a few ideas really exist--Beauty, Goodness, Largeness, etc--(100b)
Vision of earth, paradise and hell (109a)
Next I reorganized those items on my information list into «logical» groupings. I did so it on the computer by cutting and pasting the things. However, a longhand item list are reorganized by color coding or by some other method of marking the listed items to determine logical groups. In the end, We developed a summary of five groupings, not counting miscellaneous, so my initial essay plan would be to compose at the least five «body» paragraphs, then to attach a conclusion and introduction.
Group the List (step two)
Training, basic back ground
Other teachers in Athens: Gorgias, Hippias, Evenus (A 19e)
Meletus states that everyone educates the young and means they are better (A 24d)
Meletus claims that just Soc corrupts teenagers (A 25b)
we must depend on professionals (C 47d)
Socrates ended up being educated in music and gymnastics (C 50d)
Socrates is not an instructor
Soc speaks with everybody but never charges a fee (age 3d)
Soc pretends become Euthy's pupil and attempts to discover (A 3d)(A 5a)
But Euthy doesn't understand and cannot assist Soc become wise in religion (A 15d)
Soc will not attempt to teach individuals and charge a fee (A 19e)
Other instructors in Athens: Gorgias, Hippias, Evenus (A 19e)
Soc doesn't realize things so can't teach like Evenus (A 20c)
I am maybe not Anaxagoras (A 26d)
Anaxagoras was concerned with their human anatomy perhaps not his soul (P 98e)
I have never setup as any man's instructor (A 33a)
I have never ever promised or imparted any training to anybody (A 33b)
Soc is accused of corrupting the youth (E 2c-3a)
No victims come forward to claim they have been corrupted (A 34b)
Obviously Socrates is an instructor Soc is accused of corrupting the youth (E 2c-3a)
Athenians aren't getting upset with clever individuals unless they train, states Soc (age 3c)
Soc leads Euthy in conversation through q&a [question and solution]
Soc has difficulty thinking old stories of gods (age 6a)
«Socrates» in Clouds is a clever instructor of argument and nat science (A 18b)
Meletus' indictment portrays Soc the same way as Clouds (A 19b)
Soc has gained reputation for knowledge because of Apollo's oracle (A 20e)
Soc is wisest because he's many aware of their ignorance (A 21d)
Pols, poets and crafts people claim to be smart but aren't. (A)
Young enjoy Soc's cross exams (A23c)(A33c)
Young additionally imitate Socrates' examinations (A 23d)
i will be an annoying gadfly (A 30e)
The unexamined life is not worth living (A 38a)
This dialogue illustrates Socrates as educator (P)
Soc learned natural technology from Anaxagoras but had been dissatisfied (P 96a-97c)
Anaxagoras was worried about their human anatomy, not their heart (P 98e)
Exactly what he teaches
Meletus claims that Soc is an Atheist (A 26c). will teach that sunlight is a rock
i shall never ever stop practicing philosophy and exhorting you (A 29d)
Aren't you ashamed to pursue money, reputation and honor rather than truth,
understanding and perfection of your souls? (A 29e)
His «message» towards the young is always to warn against materialism (A 30b)
we tried to persuade you not to think a lot more of practical benefits than of the
psychological and ethical wellbeing (36c)
Soc criticizes the Athenians conduct of these everyday lives (39c)
Socrates main teachings: one must not return incorrect for wrong (49b)
The philosopher welcomes death (61c) when soul departs human body (P 64c-67d)
Philosophy releases the soul from imprisonment in the body (P 82e)
Philosopher rehearses for death by despising your body (P 64d)
Proof your heart exists before birth (P 71d) reincarnation (P 72b)
Doctrine that learning is «recollection» (P 73a), previous knowledge (P 75a)
Sticks and rocks, equality (P 74b)
To «know» is actually to «recall» a period as soon as the heart was pure (P 75b)
Day is invested speculating in the next life, exactly what it is like (P 61e)
Our objective would be to figure out how to argue correctly and discover the truth (P 91a)
Soc may not be persuasive but wants simply to persuade himself (P 91b)
Ideas actually exist--Beauty, Goodness, Largeness, etc--(P 100b)
eyesight of earth, paradise and hell (P 109a)
Exactly how he teaches
Soc leads Euthy in discussion through q&a [question and answer]
the education of his kiddies its better for him to die (54b)
This dialogue depicts Socrates as educator (P)
Method of ed is a conversation among philosophers (P 59a)
Philosophy is an art form, the greatest one (P 61a)
Mystery religion is related to philosophy (P 69c)
Is Soc Euthy's teacher?
Does Soc show Crito?
Meletus states that Soc corrupts young adults intentionally (A 25d)
Socrates as magician (P 78a)
Swan track, prophet of Apollo (P 85b)
Next we began writing my essay, as shown below. We skipped past the introduction and started writing the «body» paragraphs, in the things I thought had been many rational order. I would come back to the introduction later, whenever main point of my essay would be better in my own mind. Note: paragraph headings, below in brackets, wouldn't be contained in the essay; we show them here simply to make clear the way the essay was made of the logical categories of details in next step.
Write the body paragraphs (next step)
Socrates as Teacher within the last times of Socrates
[Omit the introduction for now, get back to it in step 5. keep room on web page for a subsequent paragraph, if writing long hand.]
[Teaching, general history.] Public training in Athens in Socrates' time appears to have been quite restricted. As a child, Socrates apparently was educated only in music and gymnastics (C 50d). Evidently, all the adults in the community were accountable for the upbringing for the young: at Socrates' test, Meletus claims that everybody educates the young, and everybody except Socrates succeeds in enhancing them (A 24d). In this casual system of education, a young individuals only a cure for education would are, as Socrates recommended, to find the advice of experts (C 47d).
[maybe not an instructor.] Although general public education was limited in Socrates' Athens, a system of personal education ended up being emerging because of the arrival of paid professional «sophists» like Gorgias, Hippias, and Evenus (A 19e) as well as the «natural philosopher» Anaxagoras (A 26d, P 98e). Socrates himself had examined with Anaxagoras, though he quickly became disillusioned with normal science as it seemed amoral and trivial (P 98e). These teachers apparently raised popular resentment (E 3c, A 18b). When Socrates was charged with corrupting the youth (E 2c-3a), his accusers characterized him as a personal teacher, inside mildew associated with sophists and Anaxagoras.
[maybe not an instructor, 2nd par.] Socrates defended himself by doubting that he ended up being an instructor. He never ever charged a payment for their talk (E 3d, A 19e), and he never educated anybody--or therefore he stated (A 19e). He advertised not to comprehend things, just how could he perhaps show? (A 20c). Often, as in their talk to Euthyphro, he pretended become the pupil asking concerns of a supposed instructor (E 3d, 5a), but nobody ever could enlighten him with good responses to their questions, therefore he never ever learned anything to instruct. «i've never promised or imparted any teaching to anyone,» he stated (A 33b). He specially distanced himself from Anaxagoras, whose prison break seemed to indicate more anxiety about conservation of their human anatomy than enhancement of his heart or ethical character (P 98e).
[Of program an instructor.] Definitely, Socrates could have been an instructor of a different sort of kind than the sophists and natural philosophers or the kids' teachers of music and gymnastics. InThe Apology, he admits which he has a reputation as a «wise man» (A 20e). He additionally admits to being more «wise» than other people, because he's many alert to his ignorance (A 21d). Teenagers flocked to listen to him unmask one pretender after another; they enjoyed their devastating cross examinations (A23c, A33c). These young followers additionally imitated the Socratic way of examination (A 23d), and so the old guy plainly taught them one thing, whether this result was intended or perhaps not. «Phaedo» illustrates just what per day of discussion with Socrates might have been like. Plainly for the reason that dialogue Socrates teaches, although he calls the activity «philosophy.»
[exactly what does he show?] Just what did Socrates teach? Philosophy, by his definition, appears to have been a training of exhorting your self alongside individuals pursue virtue (A 29d). Above all else, Socrates preached the Golden Rule, that no body should get back incorrect for wrong (C 49b). He asked the Athenians: are not you ashamed to pursue money, reputation and honor in place of truth, understanding and the perfection of your souls? (A 29e). Their «message» on young warned them against materialism (A 30b). He criticized Athenians generally for thinking much too much about bodily and commercial passions, and far too small about their mental and ethical health (A 36c).
[What does he show, par 2.] in accordance with Phaedo's account, Socrates taught our souls are immortal, that they're incarnated at delivery (P 71d) and separated from the body at death (P 64c-67d). A departed soul which has perhaps not obtained excellence, through training of virtue during life, will be necessary to be reincarnated and forced to try once again, until it learns to free itself from product reality (P 72b). «Philosophy» is the mental discipline that prepares the heart to flee into eternal bliss from its unhappy bondage within the cycles of reincarnation (P 72b); «learning» is actually recollecting exactly what the pure heart knew before it absolutely was created (P 73a, 75a-b).
[exactly what does he teach, par 3.] Socrates' different teachings and proofs concerning the immortality regarding the soul are laid out at great length in "Phædo." The most crucial of the is apparently their argument about «Forms» or «Ideas.» He speculates that the Forms or Tips exist outside of the physical world, in another greater plane of reality, in which our souls originate from at delivery also to that they can get back at death, if they're uncorrupted by earthly life (P 100b). The proof our souls happen there clearly was that people have actually trace memories of it. If we check two sticks, for example, we come across that they're maybe not identical, and that neither is ideal; yet we all know that both are sticks, and now we recognize the imperfection in each stick. This means, according to Socrates, that people learn about «stick-ness» and/or perfect «Form» or «Idea» of a stick. Since we can not know stick-ness or the perfect stick from any sticks we have actually experienced within the physical globe, there has to be another reality where we have gained this knowledge (P 74b). All abstractions that people understand but never in fact expertise in every day life actually must exist there--Beauty, Goodness, Largeness, Equality, an such like. (P 100b).
[just what does he teach, par 4] Teaching concerning this invisible and perfect other world, Socrates has been a mystic or prophet whom revealed their followers a spiritual truth beyond the physical universe. Exposing the disembodied kinds, Ideas and abstractions, Socrates offered young and old alike an enlightenment experience, just like the simulated connection with the afterlife supplied by the ancient Greek Mystery religions. (See P 69c.) These ancient «Mysteries» had been organizations that revealed initiates the kingdom of the dead; during initiation ceremonies, the employees and members dressed up as gods and dead heroes and performed illusions to persuade initiates they had arrive at Hades. Those who had been initiated this way «knew» that death was absolutely nothing to worry; this knowledge, it had been said, made them «wise.» Socrates' impression had been significantly more logical compared to Mysteries, but it had been of the identical general kind, revealing the destiny of our souls in death.
Next we sum up the things I've written within the body, and I also add the Works Cited.
Write the final outcome (step four)
[The team through the item list «how he teaches» doesn't get written because I'm almost out of time, and so I must compose a hasty summary.] In conclusion, Socrates evidently would not see himself as an instructor such as the sophists or Anaxagoras. He seems to have been, rather, a cult frontrunner whom showed people an afterlife in which (he claimed) perfection and abstract some ideas in fact existed. Followers glimpsed this higher religious truth by practicing Socrates' «philosophy,» thinking about ideals and abstractions, being virtuous, planning their souls for ultimate launch through the physical globe. Perhaps Socrates' unconventional afterlife, as someplace of types or Tips, ended up being just what bothered the Athenian religious authorities a great deal which they prosecuted him. He might have «converted» some of their users to their brand new philosophy. If this view is proper, Socrates and Plato would be the important website link within the reputation for western learning that connects the present day academy to really ancient roots in religious rituals simulating the realms of dead.
[do not forget the Functions Cited by the end.]
Plato, The Last Days of Socrates. Trans. Hugh Tredennick
and Harold Tarrant. London: Penguin, 2003.
Write the introduction and proofread (action 5)
[Finally, step five, we write the introduction. In a finished essay, obviously, I would personally place the intro at the start of the essay, but I leave it at the end for the time being to demonstrate the writing process.] This essay explores issue of whether Socrates was or wasn't an instructor. Evidence is evaluated from four dialogues in Platois the Last Days of Socrates. [This last sentence was my signal expression.] The tentative summary usually Socrates was a mystic or prophet, not a public school teacher or an expert tutor of arts or sciences. [This final sentence is my thesis phrase.] He «knew» the existence of a hidden world that souls experience only when disembodied, and his social objective was to help others «know» it and be «wise.» He called their wisdom-seeking process «philosophy,» but this training ended up being religious in nature and may be perfected just at death. [I'm out of time.]
Citation count: 37 citations are employed in the torso of essay
Note: the Functions Cited form is for a «translation» as shown by Hacker in 31b6. The «book» kind (Hacker 31b1) isn't the best choice as the cited words will be the translator's, perhaps not mcdougal's.
Instructoremail: [email protected]
copyright Gary Gutchess ©2003
Kept: a traditional Greek vase shows weavers of tapestry. Fine answers are produced just with careful, painstaking attention to a well organized plan.