Routing Switching And Wireless Network Essay


Discuss about the Routing Switching and Wireless Network Security.



The advancement of technology, consistently, with increasing performance and decreased prices, accessibility of the internet through wireless is increasingly deployed in public as well as the office environments. When there are numerous stakeholders are involved, connecting digitally, it is quite possible to experience security risks and threats, in the network (EFTA, 2014). Best and secured practices have become mandatory to deploy in the network, along with the privileges.

Wireless Network Security

Wireless network is established through wireless local area network and wireless communication is established through the Access Point hardware, like mobile computers, PDAs, etc. connecting the network with no wire. Most of the networks provide access to the network through open system authentication, with the 802.11 standard through, a default protocol.

Figure: Wireless Network Security (Image from Microsoft Sources)

Wireless security is a process of securing the network to prevent damage or unauthorized access to the computers. The most frequent and common wireless security are

  1. Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)

It can improve the security as a quick alternative. WPA2 is the current standard. It encrypts the network using a key of 256 bit. Such security is enforced by certain enterprises, through authentication, based on certification, for network connection and it uses the 802.1X standard.

  1. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)

It is a weak standard of security as its password can be easily discovered with certain software tools. It is outdated.


The causes of more security issues and threats in the wireless networks are because of the are the weakness of the protocols of the wireless network and inherent characteristics of the network (Ramin et al, 2014). Eventually, these issues are to be explored and discovered to counteract, before applying the wireless network in specific environment, either in office or public spaces.

Security Measures

The primary security measures in wireless network are established by cryptography, a standard secrecy method, towards protection of the information to be transmitted, from unauthorized access, by unauthorized users. Various users of the wireless network need and authenticated for various levels of data and information. Other measure is an establishment of covert communication, where the communication existence is concealed, against any possible threats or adversaries (Boyle et al, 2015).

Security Levels

Security of network can be preserved by providing limited levels of privileges for access of the data, as the following.

  1. Confidential – Sufficient transmission encryption security and authentication controls attain the encryption needed to provide access to the information that is confidential. Strong encryption and authentication tunnel can be provided by using VPN, over the connection of WLAN (Wireless Local Area Network). Configuration policies and proper key management can make it more secured.
  2. Restricted – it needs higher level of authentication, for more private data.
  3. Unclassified – This is high level of private data, which is accessed by higher level of management and authentication. Usually, key business data or deeper personal data is accessed with this highest authorization level.

Security Schemes

There are various schemes developed for providing the security from unauthorized access, attacking and hacking the data from the network (HKSAR, 2010).





Wormhole Based

Jamming is avoided using wormholes

Jamming or DoD Attack

For Hybrid senor network

Random Key, Radio Resource Testing, Pre-distribution, etc.

Makes use of ramdom key pre-distribution, code attestation, radio resource, procedure of registration, position verification, for Sybil entity detection

Sybil Attack

Wireless sensor network, used traditionally


Jammed region avoidance, through coalesced neighbour nodes

Jamming or DoD Attacks

Wireless sensor network used traditionally

Statistical En-Route Filtering

During process of forwarding, false reports are detected and dropped

Spoofing of Information

Wireless sensor networks that are highly dense and numerous sensors


Implements temporal leashes, According to symmetric cryptography, Needs time synchronization accurately

Data or information spoofing and Wormhole attack

Wireless sensor network used traditionally

Multi-base and multi-path station routing and bidirectional verification

Makes use of multi-base and multi-path base station routing and adopts sharing of probabilistic secret

Hello flood attack

Wireless sensor network used traditionally

On communication security

Network protection, though, there is compromise of part of network, efficient management of resources

Data or information spoofing

Wireless sensor network used tradiationally

Random key predistribution

Protects the network, though there is part of network is already compromised, offers network resilience and provides measures of authentication for the sensor nodes

Information and data spoofing and attacks in transit’s information

Wireless sensor network used


Function in link layer, concentrates on message authenticity provision, confidentiality and integrity

Message Replay attack and Information and data spoofing,

Wireless sensor network used tradiationally

Table: Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks Security (HKSAR, 2010)


Wireless network is widely spread and so widely prone to security threats. The threats can be mitigated and prevented only through stronger protocols and schemes.


  1. HKSAR, Wireless Networking Security, (2010), The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Hong Kong.
  2. EFTA, (2014). "SECURITY VULNERABILITIES AND RISKS IN INDUSTRIAL USAGE OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION". IEEE ETFA 2014 - 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology and Factory Automation
  3. Ramin, S., Boulat, B., Dennis, G., Saikat, G., Don, T. (2014). "Covert Single-hop Communication in a Wireless Network with Distributed Artificial Noise Generation". arXiv:
  4. Boyle, Randall, Panko, Raymond. (2015). Corporate Computer Security. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

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