RFID based mobile charging using footstep power generation
Udit Nemade1, Asmita Chavanke2, Shweta Patil3, Laukik Tikam4, Prof. G. S. Raghtate5
Department of Electronics Engineering
Datta Meghe College of Engineering
Sector – 3, Airoli, Navi Mumbai 400708
Abstract— Here we propose an advanced footstep power generator system for Mobile charging using a RFID based authentication system that uses piezo sensors to generate power from human footsteps. The system allows for a platform for placing footsteps. The piezo sensors are mounted below the platform to generate voltage from footsteps. The sensors are placed in such an arrangement so as to generate maximum output voltage. This is then provided to our monitoring circuitry. The circuit is a microcontroller-based monitoring circuit that allows user to monitor the voltage and charges a connected battery by it. It also displays the charge generated and displays on an LCD display. It also consists of a USB mobile phone charging point where user may connect cables to charge mobile phone from the battery charge. The authenticity of the user will be verified by the RFID tag/card provided to the user at the time of registration. Thus, we charge a battery using power from user footsteps, display it on LCD using microcontroller circuit and allow for mobile charging through the setup.
Keywords— Piezo sensor, non-conventional power, RFID, Footstep, power, mobile charging.
For an alternate method to generate electricity there are number of methods by which electricity can be produced, out if such methods footstep energy generation can be an effective method to generate electricity. Walking is the most common activity in human life. When a person walks, he loses energy to the road surface in the form of impact, vibration, sound, etc. due to the transfer of his weight on to the road surface, through foot falls on the ground during every step. This energy can be tapped and converted in the usable form such as in electrical form. This device, if embedded in the footpath, can convert foot impact energy into electrical form.
Human-powered transport has been in existence since time immemorial in the form of walking, running and swimming. However modern technology has led to machines to enhance the use of human-power in more efficient manner. In this context, pedal power is an excellent source of
energy and has been in use since the nineteenth century making use of the most powerful muscles in the body. Ninety-five percent of the exertion put into pedal power is converted into energy. Pedal power can be applied to a wide range of jobs and is a simple, cheap, and convenient source of energy. However, human kinetic energy can be useful in a number of ways but it can also be used to generate electricity based on differentnt approaches and many organizations are already implement-
ing human powered technologies to generate electricity to power small
II. LITERATURE SURVEY
"Power Generating Slabs: Lost energy conversion of human locomotive force into electrical energy" IEEE 8th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dec. 2014. Rajesh Kumar Datta, Sazid Rahman (2014). Understanding the piezoelectric effect, different types of piezoelectric materials. We also understood optimizing the piezoelectric tile design for achieving the maximum output.
“Design Study of Piezoelectric Energy-Harvesting Devices for Generation of Higher Electrical Power Using a Coupled Piezoelectric-Circuit Finite Element Method” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency control, vol.57",number.2",Feburary 2010. Got an insight on the electrical energy generated by the piezoelectric transducers and it can be utilized. Also we got to know in what all sectors this technology can be applied. Different piezoelectric materials have different characteristics. Thus we also got to know how to choose the right piezoelectric material for our project and also the amount of sensors that will be needed to achieving the desired level of output.
“Programming in Ansi C” by Balaguruswamy. Our various programming queries and basis have been cleared by this book.
III. PROPOSED METHOD
The system will help to maintain the records of user’s login details and provides security from theft activity. It will mainly have an application which will be used for admin as well as for guest user log in.
The methodology of the system consists of the following-
1. Installation of piezo flooring tiles.
2. Setting up of battery and a mobile charging station station.
3. A user will scan the RFID tag/card upon arrival.
4. Grant/Deny access after match/mismatch of RFID tag/card.
Installation of the piezo electric flooring tiles-
Firstly, we need to understand the requirements of the system viz. what is the power consumption of the modules and how many modules in all have to be setup and also the approximate estimate of the number of users the system shall be serving. Accordingly, we will have to setup the piezo electric flooring tiles in the premises. As per the requirement the series and parallel combination of the sensors and transducers have to be made so as to achieve the required output.
Setting up of battery and mobile charging station-
After finishing the installation of the system, we will have to setup the battery station and the mobile charging station. The RFID reader modules have to be setup for the authentication of the users. The RFID modules will be powered by the electricity generated by the flooring tiles placed in the premises. The flooring tiles will also simultaneously charge the batteries.
IV. AUTHENTICATION OF USER
The user authentication will be based on the RFID tags. Every user will be mapped with an RFID tag number and saved in the database. Upon arrival at the mobile charging station the user will have to scan his/her RFID tag/card and then the system will read its tag number and authenticate it with the one in the database. If there is a match the user will be allowed to go ahead with the charging else the user will be denied access to the further process.
V. HARDWARE IMPLEMENTATION
A. Block Diagram
The block diagram of our system is as shown in below.
The main elements of the system are Atmega328 microcontroller, piezoelectric sensors, display, RFID scanner. All these modules are interfaced with the controller.
Fig. Block diagram of the system
The following modules and the controller are interfaced together to make the security system work.
Atmel ATmega328: The Atmel ATmega328P is a 32K 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR architecture. Many instructions are executed in a single clock cycle providing a throughput of almost 20 MIPS at 20MHz. The ATMEGA328-PU comes in an PDIP 28 pin package and is suitable for use on our 28 pin AVR Development Board.
Fig.: Pin diagram of Atmel ATmega328 microcontroller
EM18 RFID module: EM18 is a RFID reader which is used to read RFID tags of frequency 125 kHz.
After reading tags, it transmits unique ID serially to the PC or microcontroller using UART communication or Wiegand format on respective pins.
EM18 RFID reader reads the data from RFID tags which contains stored ID which is of 12 bytes.
EM18 RFID reader doesn’t require line-of-sight. Also, it has identification range which is short i.e. in few centimetres.
RFID reader EM-18 features:
1. Serial RS232/TTL output
2. Operating Frequency is 125KHz.
3. Range is 5-8 cm.
a) Arduino IDE: The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) is a cross-platform application (for Windows, macOS, Linux) that is written in the programming language Java. It is used to write and upload programs to Arduino board. The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring. The Arduino IDE supplies a software library from the Wiring project, which provides many common input and output procedures. User-written code only requires two basic functions, for starting the sketch and the main program loop, that are compiled and linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic executive program with the GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution. The Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal encoding that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board's firmware.
• Power generation is simply walking on step.
• No need fuel input.
• This is a Non-conventional system.
• No moving parts - long service life.
• Self-generating - no external power required.
• Compact yet highly sensitive
• Reliable, Economical, Eco-Friendly.
• Less consumption of Non- renewable energies.
• Power also generated by running or exercising on the step.
• Battery is used to store the generated power
• Extremely wide dynamic range, almost free of noise
• Only applicable for the particular place.
• Initial cost of this arrangement is high.
• Output affected by temperature variation.
• Initial cost of this arrangement is high.
• Care should be taken for batteries
The project “RFID based mobile charging using footstep power generation” is successfully tested and implemented which is the best economical, affordable energy solution to common people. This can be used for many applications in rural areas where power availability is less or totally absence. As India is a developing country where energy management is a big challenge for huge population. By using this project we can drive both A.C. as well as D.C. loads according to the force we applied on the piezo electric sensor. Our prototype demonstrates that a floor generator can be done. A DC generator can illustrate the concept, but the reliability and durability are questionable, Newer technologies could make a very reliable generator
Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like India and China. The whole human/ bio-energy being wasted if can be made possible for utilization , it will be great invention and crowd energy farms will be very useful energy sources in crowded countries. Some 28",527 steps, for example, could power an entire moving train for a second. The Crowd Farm could also be used to harness the head-bashing energy at a rock concert. Nonconventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation.
 Power Generating Slabs: Lost energy conversion of human locomotive force into electrical energy" IEEE 8th International Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dec. 2014. Rajesh Kumar Datta, Sazid Rahman (2014).
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