Employees are one of the most valuable assets of any organization; this asset is a key element of the organizational development and success. Absenteeism is one of the biggest issues that one is facing today. One of the key factors for the employee to work with dedication and to get a proper result is attentiveness or a reduction in the absenteeism. The attentiveness of the employee lead to the two major factors first is employee motivation and second is the capability to work with ethics. Whereas attentiveness leads to motivation and it also satisfies the employee as well as an employer, whereas on the other hand absenteeism causes job dissatisfaction. An exposure to the globalization and diversified culturalism, the challenge of upholding of the professional ethics. Work ethics can be broadly categorized into four segments 1) the morality, 2) the values, 3) ethical decision-making, and (4) the ethical standards for risk management (Buzan, 2010). It has been seen since in the last century that, social work has prolonged from a preoccupation with employees' morality and values of ethics. The work ethics are the social responsibilities and the duties that once follow without supervision. These affects in the organissation work culture and employees standard of leaving.
This study demonstrates the direct relation between the absenteeism and work ethics. The personal management infrastructure development has been started over ten years in the public service reforms was a major task. It was difficult to make changes in the existing system was due to political influence and the culture. Trinidad and Tobago's public service consist of a very vivid workforce (Miller and del Carmen Triana, 2009). The organizations are mainly categorized into three different workforce or agencies. Central agencies, service commission departments or the public service sectors (judge, police, and education department) and the perennial department. Government and political machinations were developed with an objective to protect the career of public officers. As and when the time passed and the public sector grew its length and breadth in 1970’s There is a tremendous growth in the size of public services was observed as a result of this hype in the size and the complexity in the also increase in the current system which left behind ambiguity. That forced to implement the centralization which leads to disfunctionality (Karakas, 2010).
This disfunctionality was seen due to the only one executing point with various other working bodies at different location this made the practical implementation of the mode very difficult, so it was not practiced as often due to the lack of fault tolerance of that system. In the subsequent year the decentralization started in the 1990’s due to lack of the ethics and attentiveness of the employees (Karjalainen, 2010). Due to the increase in the size of the public sector the price was cut down so to maintain the budget. The other changes such as increments and the cost of living allowances were also cut down. The solution for this could be the work base motivation incentive that means the employee should receive only the basic salary in addition to that whatever he works or does could add extra to him in this way the employee in the public sector could be motivated easily and with a minimum cost the results are more relevantly be seen.
For example: In the private sector the salaries were between 30,000 to 105,000 per month in few scenarios where the job is not at all secured, on the other hand the private sector was having only 20,000 per month in some cases like permanently employed. This was the senior with other jobs and positions in both the sector (Kaye et al. 2011). Looking upon the broader term that the public sector the job is secured whereas in the private sector the job loosing risk factor is higher. In order to improve the public sector and to make the human resource more powerful the public sector should introduce the incentive system in accordance with the performance and the hype of the living cost. The workers are the key functional area that an organization should pay more attention to so the human resource. The workers should be more efficient in the work which is assigned to them. This could help in work efficiency and revenue generation to the organization or the customer and employee satisfaction is seen in this case.
Absenteeism and work ethics are positively correlated with each other. There is a strong relation between work ethics and absenteeism. If the absenteeism ratio is very less than the ratio of the ethics are higher, or else the rate of absenteeism the higher than the work ethics are observed very less. Absenteeism can be of several types such as Authorized Absenteeism where an employee applies for the leave to their supervisor. The other can be Unauthorized Absenteeism where an employee does not urge to take prior permission from their supervisors. There also can be a Willful Absenteeism where an employee is willing absent from their duty. And there can be Absenteeism in circumstances which are beyond one’s control like accidents or sickness. It has its impact on the any company incurring cost in terms of Productivity, Administration and Finance. This ultimately has its impacts on many areas such as service delivery, financial losses, staff Morale etc. Here if the issue is identified in the early stage and solutions implemented and still if the employee continues to be absent then normal disciplinary procedures are to be implemented. Generally it is accepted that there is an Agreement between both the parties i.e. Employer and the Employee where an employee is abide to render his/his services to the employer in all possible terms. And if this is done properly and up to the satisfaction of the employer then employer is abide to pay the returns. And if the employee fails to render this service and if found absent then employer terms this as Absenteeism. If we try and look at Absenteeism form Employer and Employee’s side then they have a great difference. Just to list a few examples Absenteeism is a huge problem from Employer side as it is directly affecting the Staff Attitude, service delivery and ultimately loss of revenue. Thus usually all the organizations wants Absenteeism ratio to be as low as possible. Employees fails to see themselves not providing the service delivery when they are not on their work stations for which they are paid but rather sees themselves at work and Employer look at them as being unproductive and are not focused on Goals of Organization (Laroche and Wechtler, 2011).
The imbalance is caused due to changes in the economic condition of the state and if the government does not cope up with the changing conditions there is going to be an imbalance in the employment ratio. The solution to the disparity in the revenue generation of the employee in the public and private sector can be eliminated or nullified by providing some extra benefits or perks to the employees who are getting less remuneration. The other solution could be by giving some long term extra benefits, employee like issuing of bonds, shares or by giving extra powers to the employee (Akintayo, 2010). The job security is one of me major threat to the private sector so in order to attract the employee the public services must provide job securities to the employees.
On the other hand there are many causes for Absenteeism such as Long hours of work, Poor working Condition, Accidents, Poor Control, Nature of work, Absence of regular leave arrangements, Alcoholism and Gambling habits, Attitude or motivational problem, Poor health, Lack of job satisfaction, Lack of clear standards and policy, Lack of refreshment areas, Lack of medical Aid and health programs, Lack of marketing facilities, Education of children, Lack of cooperation and understanding between employee and the company, outside interests, transportation problems, Stress, Ergonomic issues, Domestic, family or personal problems, management style etc. According to the research (Cailler, 2014) taken in United States of America sometimes under trained supervisors is also one of the causes for Absenteeism rather than low pay, poor benefits etc.
Absenteeism affects both the employee and the company in three major ways, namely Decrease in Productivity, Financial costs and Administrative costs. The Absenteeism of the employees affects the company adversely as the cost of production increases because those employees need to be replaced by new temporary employees (Kavitha, Geetha and Arunachalam, 2011). Their colleagues are brought more additional stress of workload with a feeling of demoralized due to deadlines and work pressure building on them. Absenteeism is directly proportional to the productivity of the company and as a result of that the temporary staff allocated needs to be paid for overtime ultimately effecting cost of the production and so as the price of the commodity. Above that employee turnover incur cost to the company in terms of hiring them, cost of training them, extra labor cost, extra operating cost, loss of goodwill (Martin-Alcazar et al. 2012).
There is also a cost incurred to the company in separating the employee, such as job advertising, reemployment administrative functions, selection interview, employment test, meeting to discuss with the candidate (Buttner et al. 2012). Moreover the employees are also affected by the Absenteeism as they will be getting paid very less and as a result of that their standard of living is decreased. And thus Absenteeism very adversely affects the employer and employee along with the customer paying high for the commodity. These consequences can increase work load, undesired overtime, Conflict with absent worker, more grievances etc. This may also lead to loss of business or it may end up getting unsatisfied client which no company or organization would like to bear. Understaffing and poor quality of goods resulting from overtime is possible one of the consequences of it. Excess of manager’s time dealing with the suitable replacement of new employee. Safety issue can pertain due to inadequate trained employees (Kaplan et al. 2011).
In the future the government should introduce, such as a system in which the employees must be benefited in such a ways that they get inspired to work in order to get a better outcome from it. This dedication of the employee must be kept consistent by awarding with the perk and incentives. The employee should be getting enough salary to spend this life comfortable, adding up the person should be given enough opportunity to work hard and earn extra incentive or bonus or promotion in this future. His basic increment of the employee should be implemented with reference to the cost of living index. If the solutions are not adopted timely there would be a major depreciation in one of the sectors leading towards the imbalance.
The rate of Absenteeism will gradually reduce on announcing that there will be steps taken the check on the Absenteeism. The very first step taken should be record all type of Absenteeism of each employee for each year along with the duration of leave for each employee and the reason behind it. The next step should be to take a follow up for each case of Absenteeism such as to pay visit to them on sick leaves whenever necessary to all those who have a excessive sick leave reports (Acar, 2010). Writing letters to the them recording Absenteeism and should be handed over to the relevant employee and a receipt of proof has to be obtained in return from them. The next thing should be conducting meetings with them. Incentives should be given for not taking the sick leaves. Giving health insurance as a part of their package an bonus (Carraher, 2011).
There are workplace strategies that help to provide a positive impact towards the employees and this is assorted with the abilities and the opportunities that very well increases the performance of the staff. Effective organizational leadership approach is a deep understanding for achieving the principal objective that helps to enhance the performance of staff and the work absenteeism is decreased in such organizations. The workplace strategies may sometime have a negative impact which indicates the negative behavior and the negative consequences that are infact the barriers for increase in productivity (Chevalier and Strayer, 2008). As such high retention rates are categorized due to work absenteeism, so the efforts that enhance the positive affect while considering the performance and reliability of work ethics are to be build in an organization.
This will help to support the workplace performance with the influential tool for workplace design. Motivation at work place is an effective way to communicate with the employees and the staff members that may lead to the discussion and the challenges in the perceptiveness of employees. Challenges and problems are analyzed and this may improve the communications with employee relationship strategy (Khan, Clear, Al-Kaabi and Pezeshki, 2010). There are studies that resulted in the improvement of the work ethics with low retention rates. Positive attitude has to be build for increasing the standard of workplace and motivation to employees. The reward system at public sectors may help to create a positive environment as increasing the employee productivity would help to increase the overall growth of an organization.
Management relations may even impact to increase the level of growth for employees and decrease the work absenteeism with certain barriers. Leadership qualities may enhance the structure of an organization and the produced improved outcomes are a success for an organization. At this end, there are incentives that are given to the employees for improving the work ethics and a proper performance evaluation system is considered by engaging employees in reward system categories with an interest of publicly accepting the criteria for performance achievement goals. there are intellectual areas that are considered and are highly confidential, which needs to be reviewed while sharing personal information (Agrawal, 2012). The elements of work ethics are considerably broad and this may lead to certain standards that are followed by an organization with the management relationships and an enhanced performance standard that motivates employees and thereby engages into organizational profits. As such the goal of some decisions that encounter the individual identity creates an enthusiasm by evaluating the emotional movement of employees. Employement standards are acknowledge and this diescribes the antecedents that are beneficial for growth and development of an organization.
Work absenteeism can be decreased by these strategies in the future to determine the level of productivity that increases while adopting those strategies. Employees should be given a reward system that is recommendable and accepted as per the standard and for future growth this may help to decrease the work absenteeism and increase the level of work ethics in an organization (Lawrence and Tar, 2013).
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