Research Methodologies Essay

Question:

Write a report about the "effect of teacher accents while teaching early grades at school".

Answer:

Introduction

This study deals with addressing effect of teacher accents while teaching early graders at school. Teachers require access towards wide range of information for functioning well in classroom session (Weingarten & Penat, 2012). Core competencies requires in various state certification standard for future analysis purpose. It is challenging task for providing excellent teacher preparation as well as ongoing professional development especially for teachers. In this research proposal, it brings out the research questions, research aims and objectives at the same. This particular assignment clearly elaborates the main importance of teaching profession in the life of early graders (Walt & Potgieter, 2012). Research methodology brings out the data collection methods adopted by researchers at the time of research analysis.

Background of the study

First graders are those students who come to school with brimming over enthusiasm as well as excitement for learning new things. This particular age is marked in form of tremendous growth, loosing teeth as well as great emotional highs (Swearengen, 2012). These first graders make big plans and jumps into projects for not missing single thing in life. Teachers should speak in easy language and present session in pictorial form, so that early grade student feels it interesting while sitting at classroom. Teachers should have the quality of effective teaching by clear communication ways. Teachers should be able to communicate with students with maximum clarity and posses strategies for understanding in desired form. Teachers should encounter students in identifying first language or dialect for proper communication as far as possible (Supino & Borer, 2012). Addition to that, it is requires understanding of linguistics that enables teachers in discoursing patterns as well as understanding aspects of culture and backgrounds. In accordance with National Association for the Education of Young Children, teachers should create enthusiasm and passion in students. They should drive for unlocking child door to learning as well as obstacles in the near future. Teachers should have extreme patience as well as humor so that students should attend the classes interestingly. They should posses learned effective skills within the young students as well as communicating with them at early graders (Ponterotto, 2012). Teachers requires in communicating with child’s parents on matters relating to needs, skills as well as problems and achievements in and within both parties under undue emotions. Teachers should communicate with other teachers for getting updated information in desired way. Teachers should be able to differentiate between students coming at school. Each student has some unique personality as well as learning style that needs proper attention by students 9 Persson, 2012). In the global society, it is essential for the teachers in preparation of multicultural classrooms with cultures, traditions as well as ethnicities. Classroom is a place whereby differences should be tolerant and adapted in form of embraced open as well as exciting learning atmosphere at the same time. Planning effective lessons by the teachers engages young students in taking creativity as a major part. It requires adapting towards lessons in individual learning styles that symbolizes flexibility largely. Irrespective of any condition, teachers should be flexible enough in handling the glitches and throw off the day. She should have the inclination in changing plans as and when required as a whole. Early childhood development teacher should be able to use creativity as well as flexibility in making day in positive form in the most appropriate way (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson & Collins, 2012).

Teachers require qualification that proves ability in being recruited in school. Teaching comes under service sector and therefore plays an important part in shaping life of early grade students. Early grade students should be taught the basic concepts in fair manner so that they do not face any problems in the near future. Basic concepts on the subjects taught by teachers help students rise in the upcoming future (Muijs, 2012). First graders enthusiasm for school as well as life considers as exhausting. Teaching first graders is fun, exciting as well as gives rise to joyful experiences on regular basis. Teachers should make the first graders students comes with grand ideas into manageable parts for future purpose. Effective teachers should posse’s sound knowledge of the subject matter. Teachers should take personal interest in teaching individual students as well as understanding their mindset at the same time. They should establish caring as well as loving and warm atmosphere for the early graders students (Mayer & Steneck, 2012). They should show enthusiasm to students and listen to their ideas as well. Teachers should conduct instructional planning as well as organizing child orientation programs. It requires building enthusiasm among students. According to survey, teachers requires passionate attitude towards handling students at schools. They require high level of patience so that they do not get angry at the mischief of students at schools. Teachers should have interest in learning and inspire students in doing so at the same time. Learning and teaching goes hand-by-hand and taken proper attention at the same time (Kumar, 2011). It is important to consider the fact that teachers should give full attention and engage time for student career development. Pictorial representation and interesting way of teaching students enables in making the classroom session an interesting place for early graders students.

Research aims and objectives

The main aim of the research is to bring the importance of teaching accents or characteristics at the time of teaching early graders at school (Kuada, 2012).This particular research brings out teacher characteristics while teaching students.

Research Question

  1. What is the effect of teacher accents while teaching early graders at school?
  2. What are teaching characteristics requires at teaching early graders at school?
  3. How effective teaching quality helps in student development for early graders at school?

Research Hypothesis

H0: There is an impact of teacher accents or characteristics in teaching early grade students

H1: There is no impact of teacher accents or characteristics in teaching early grade students

Research Methodology

This part of the research proposal will bring out the process used for collecting information as well as data in undertaking business decisions in certain ways. Research Methodology includes various publications, surveys as well as interviews as per presentation of present and historical information (Knapp, 2013).

Scientivism or Positivism

Positivism especially belongs to epistemology that is specified in consideration with research philosophy in the particular study on Impact of teacher accents or characteristics in teaching early grade students. Positivism research philosophy brings out the factual assumptions as well as scientific data collection methods (Knapp, 2012). It requires observation by the researchers including measurement in trusted form. Positivism studies satisfy the role as a researcher and limited largely in data collection as well as interpretation in an objective approach.

Post-Positivism

Post-Positivism is one of the common forms in philosophy in case of critical realism. Critical realist believes in reality independency in thinking process for future analysis purpose. It is direct contrast with subjectivist for holding to external reality for actual realist at the same time (Holden & Lynch, 2012). Principles of Post-Positivism depend upon quantifiable observations as well as leading themselves in form of statistical analysis for the same. Post-Positivism philosophy generally is empirical in nature and directs towards human experience in the most appropriate way. It includes ontological view in and around world comprising ways like discrete, observable elements as well as events in events in regular ways. Post-Positivism studies help researchers in bringing independent forms (Crossan, 2013). There are no particular provisions that involve human interests in this particular study. In according to general rule, Post-Positivism studies adopt deductive approach and inductive approach in association with philosophy phenomenon. Post-Positivism philosophy helps researchers in concentrating on facts as well as provision as per human interest.

Epistemology- Post-positivist believes that human knowledge based upon unchallengeable as well as rock-solid foundations and conjectures. Human knowledge assets conjecture for further investigation purpose (Crossan, 2012). Post-Positivism is not direct form of relativism as well as retains idea of objective truth for the same.

Ontology- Post positivists believe in real existence in imperfect as well as probability form for future analysis purpose.

Humanism

Humanism is one kind of research methods in terms of psychology. It relates studies as a whole person as well as uniqueness of an individual. Humanism is considered as psychological perspectives that emphasizes for study whole person (Columbus, 2012). These humanistic psychologist views at human behavior from observer point of view from behavior pattern. As the research was on studying the characteristics of teachers while teaching students, it requires understanding behavioral pattern of students.

Critical Theory

Critical theory is considered as philosophy as innovative view of society. In most of the cases, it looks for privileged people including rich, white men likewise. Critical theory in education reveals the educational system for offering best education for all people (Biddle & Emmett, 2012). It mainly aims at offering better opportunities as well as understanding of innovative perspectives in way of disadvantaged members of society as a whole.

Post modernism

Post-modernism considers as accusations indicating clear evolution from postmodern view at the same time. Postmodern concerning epistemic foundations like positivistic sciences in way of self-possessed identities. It resists in form of dominant form in oppressive cultures for own lives (Biddle & Emmett, 2011).

Justification of using research methods or philosophy

Researchers mainly assume Post-Positivism philosophy for their independency nature and objectivity at the same time. Independent requires maintaining minimal interaction involving research participants for carrying out research in certain way. Post-Positivism Paradigm mainly based upon facts as well as external objectives in an overall manner (Barone & Eisner, 2011). Post-Positivism philosophy includes fast speed at the time of conducting research y researchers and covers wide range of situations in the near future.

Research Methods

Deductive Approach includes bringing out specialized concepts in the study. It aims at testing theories whereas inductive approach concerns with generations with emerging data collection methods for the same. Deductive approach mainly begins with hypothesis whereas inductive approach uses research questions for the scope of the study (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson & Collins, 2012). Deductive approach emphasis upon casualty whereas inductive approach focuses on exploring new phenomena from new perspectives. In this particular study, researchers use deductive approach as it requires specific assumptions on the current study.

Research Design

Research Design is the study including descriptive, correlation as well as experimental and meta-analytical ways. Descriptive research helps in describing characteristics out of given population as well as phenomenon for future analysis purpose. Explanatory research design involves in describing the study by exploring new ideas as well as designs by the researchers (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson & Collins, 2012). It conducts descriptive research in increasing knowledge based upon the current study in practice. Explanatory research aims at explaining connected ideas for understanding the cause and effect relationship by the researchers in an overall manner. This research requires using of descriptive research as each aspects requires detailed investigation for best possible outcomes in the future.

Data Collection Methods

Data Collection is considered as one of the important aspects in the research activities. Inaccurate data collection methods adversely affect resulted study as well as lead to invalid results (Barone & Eisner, 2011). These methods affect evaluation process varying along with continuum. It includes quantitative as well as qualitative research methods for analysis purpose.

Quantitative and Qualitative Data Collection Methods

Quantitative data collection methods depends largely in on random sampling as well as structured data collection instruments in fitting diverse predetermined response categories. It helps in producing results in summarized as well as generalized form (Barone & Eisner, 2011). This particular research methods concerns directly with testing hypothesis as derived from theory implications as well as estimating sizes interest phenomenon in the most appropriate way. It widely depends upon the research question for random assigning ways in various treatments. Researchers requires in collecting data on participant as well as situational characteristics for statistical control in an effective way. It generalizes ways from research participants in relation with larger population. Quantitative data collection strategies include experiments, clinical trials as well as observing and recording well-defined events. It obtains relevant data in form of management information systems. It requires administering questionnaires by asking closed-ended questions. It includes face-to-face interviews as well as questionnaires in the particular study. As far as quantitative data collection is concerned, researchers distributes questionnaire to 7 teachers (Biddle & Emmett, 2011). It identifies the respondent’s response for understanding impact of teaching accents at the time of teaching early graders.

Qualitative data collection methods play an important role for information evaluation in observed results as well as assessing people perceptions. Qualitative methods improve quality of survey based questionnaire evaluations. It helps in generating hypothesis evaluation for design strengthening in case of questionnaire analysis (Biddle & Emmett, 2011). This particular method helps in asking open-ended questions to the respondents at the time of interview. Researcher’s changes data collection strategy by adding dropping techniques for future analysis purpose. Researchers rely upon heavy iterative interviews for solving particular issues as well as checking reliability data. It uses triangulation for increased credibility of findings. Researcher’s mostly uses multiple data collection methods for checking on the authenticity of results. It generally brings out the findings for generalizing specific population for seeking specific patterns for solving same issues. In case of qualitative data collection methods, researchers have asked interview questions to 5 teachers for gathering facts on viewpoint. Interview is taken from the most experienced teachers at school for gathering facts on realistic basis (Weingarten & Penat, 2012). Experienced teachers spend students that are comparatively more timeserving as well as school. Teaching profession comes under service sector so teachers serve the students for bright future.

At the time of research, researchers requires in using MS Excel for studying current research proposal.

Accessibility Issues

It is important to understand the fact that researcher faces issues at the time of conducting research. At the time of interview, teachers are not free for giving answers and time constraint reasons (Biddle & Emmett, 2011). It may give rise to irritation from the side of respondents that hampers smooth research process in each possible ways.

Ethical Consideration

At the time of the research, researchers should maintain confidentiality of information. Data protection act will punish researchers for misusing information as far as possible (Biddle & Emmett, 2011).

Expected Research Outcomes

With limited time constraints, researchers find it difficult to conduct in-depth analysis in the current study. Expected research outcomes requires more time for conducting proper evaluation researching single aspect in detailed ways. It lacks enough resources that requires in implementation of research methods (Onwuegbuzie, Johnson & Collins, 2012). Future study should arrange for additional resources for proper functioning of research process in desired way. Extended future research should focus teacher contribution in student life for career development process in the near future. It is expected for conducting teaching survey whereby teachers are given privilege in participation and making valid point at the time of research. The government for making the teaching profession in successful form should give more emphasis (Weingarten & Penat, 2012).

Reference List

Barone, T. & Eisner, E. (2011). Arts Based Research. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.

Biddle, J. & Emmett, R. (2011). Research in the history of economic thought and methodology. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Biddle, J. & Emmett, R. (2012). Research in the history of economic thought and methodology. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.

Columbus, A. (2012). Advances in psychology research. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Crossan, F. (2012). Research philosophy: towards an understanding. Nurse researcher, 11(1), 46-55.

Crossan, F. (2013). Research philosophy: towards an understanding. Nurse researcher, 11(1), 46-55.

Holden, M. T., & Lynch, P. (2012). Choosing the appropriate methodology: understanding research philosophy. The marketing review, 4(4), 397-409.

Knapp, T. (2012). Quantitative nursing research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Knapp, T. (2013). Quantitative nursing research. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Kuada, J. (2012) Research methodology.

Kumar, R. (2011). Research methodology. Los Angeles: SAGE.

Mayer, T. & Steneck, N. (2012). Promoting research integrity in a global environment. Hackensack, N.J.: World Scientific.

Muijs, D. (2012). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS. London: SAGE.

Onwuegbuzie, A. J., Johnson, R. B., & Collins, K. M. (2012). Call for mixed analysis: A philosophical framework for combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. International journal of multiple research approaches, 3(2), 114-139.

Persson, J. (2012). Misconceptions of positivism and five unnecessary science theoretic mistakes they bring in their train. International journal of nursing studies, 47(5), 651-661.

Ponterotto, J. G. (2012). Qualitative research in counseling psychology: A primer on research paradigms and philosophy of science. Journal of counseling psychology, 52(2), 126.

Supino, P. & Borer, J. (2012). Principles of research methodology. New York, NY: Springer.

Swearengen, J. (2012). Biodefense. Boca Raton: Taylor & Francis.

Walt, J. L. V. D., & Potgieter, F. J. (2012). Research method in education: The frame by which the picture hangs. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 6(3), 220-232.

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