In conducting this research, a combination of systematic methods and scientific principles are obviously required in order to perfectly guide the flow of this research. The writer will explain about the method that will be used in analyzing A Clockwork Orange which includes the method of collecting data, the method of analyzing data, and the research procedure.
Method of Collecting Data
The process of collecting data is presented by the writer in the chronological order as follows:
Firstly, the writer will collect data from the novel that is being studied. To do so, the writer will conduct an extensive reading to identify the occurrence of data which are related to the problems that will be analyzed later. The data mentioned above will be obtained by using close reading method on the novel based on the general principles of the theoretical concepts which underlies this study.
Secondly, the writer will conduct a comprehensive reading on various external supporting sources to obtain data which are considered relevant to this study. These data will be obtained from books, articles, essays, journals and other writings on the internet which the writer considers reliable and helpful to be used as references.
In addition, the writer will use many types of dictionaries to find the meaning of difficult and unfamiliar words in the novel and the supporting texts used as a reference. Not only the regular English dictionaries, the writer will also uses a particular dictionary for the invented language found in the novel called Nadsat which was written by the author himself.
Method of Analyzing Data
The data analysis in this study will be conducted by using the descriptive qualitative method. Descriptive qualitative method generally uses words (qualitative data) rather than numbers or concepts that can be quantified with its emphasis on a rich description of phenomena that can be produced. The goal of this type of method is a comprehensive summarization, in everyday terms, of specific events experienced by individuals or groups of individuals.
The writer will start the analysis on the structure of the novel A Clockwork Orange. Next, the writer will further investigate the elements of selected problems derived from each structure to relate them with the data derived from any supporting external texts. Thus, in this section, the writer will draw the relation between the elements of literary works and any conception derived from supporting sources. Sorts of elements shown in the literary works (the characters, depiction of objects, the perception to anything) will later be connected to the concepts based on theoretical background that the writer applies to analyze this study.
Source of Data
Primary data are discovered from reading upon A Clockwork Orange itself. These data are taken from a series of events related to the aspect of free will and freedom which occur in the novel. They are either explicitly or implicitly shown through dialogues, internal monologues, and narrations.
Secondary data are taken from external sources outside the novel. These data function as additional information to support the primary data and to prove the way the applied theory works on them. Such external sources consist of books, journals, online articles, essays, thesis, and some other printed resources related to the objective of this research.
Tools of Data Collection
The writer provides several tools which are necessarily required in conducting this research. These tools are presented as follows:
- Brightly colored marker (stabilo); to highlight every important data found either in the novel or the other printed sources.
- Small notebook; to save all the brainstormed ideas which put the writer in ease during the process of data analysis.
- Pen and pencil; to write ideas into the small notebook.
- 14 inch laptop; to arrange presentation and to save all the important documents related to this research.
- A pack of self-made blank cards; to categorize all the discovered data into each of smaller units based on their own importance
- Sticky and colorful rectangular notes; to mark every important page in the novel or the other printed sources so that they are easily recognized by the writer.
The writer organizes a series of procedures to make the research constructed systematically based on scientific principles. They are presented as follows:
First of all, the writer will conduct an extensive reading of A Clockwork Orange. By doing this, the writer will start to identify some problems contained in Anthony Burgess’ novel. The writer will also highlight some important elements in the novel which, according to the writer, will be relevant for the next step. Each of those important elements will be marked bold using a stabilo.
Next, the writer will conduct a data collection by categorizing any previous findings from the novel and writing each of them in a pack of blank cards that the writer made by herself. From the obtained data, the writer will make a limitation to the problems to make it more particular and specific so that she will formulate a research question.
At this point, the writer will choose the concept of freedom by Jean Paul Sartre and the genetic structuralism approach by Lucien Goldmann as the most possible theoretical concept which is very appropriate to be used to analyze the concept of free will in A Clockwork Orange. Thus, the next step is the analytical process of the concept of free will in the novel based on the basic principles of the aforementioned theory.
For the last step, the writer will draw a conclusion based on the result of the analysis of free will and relate it to the intended moral values, which is to improve the social awareness of youth without the use of violence. In association with the basic principle of the applied theory, the conclusion means to achieve a coherence between all the elements that have been analyzed. To put it simply, the writer will complete the whole results of research into the form of a thesis which will be submitted later as a requirement for earning a Master’s Degree in English Language Studies.