Relation Of Climate Watch And Focal Species Essay

Question:

Discuss about the Relation of Climate Watch and Focal Species.

Answer:

Introduction

Anthropogenic climate change is production of greenhouse gas. Scientists have examined the ice cores to find the result of human activities. As a result greenhouse gasses production like carbon mono oxide, CO2 increases in the atmosphere that affects ecosystem and population (Castree et al. 2014).

Some species became endangered. Climate changing and melting of sea ice has a bad effect on regional species. Ecosystem is changed by the rises of sea level and pH level. Most of the species need to grow in particular temperature, which able them to thrive. Specific regional climate changing affects the inhabitants of the region (Parmesan et al. 2013). The pattern of breeding and the many birds’ and other animals’ existence become changed. The report aims to relate the climate changing and focal species in ecosystem.

Result

Species Common Name

Location

Date

Time

Mountain Pygmy-possum

South eastern Australia

8/12/16

8.56

Golden Bell frog

Eastern Australia

9/12/16

12.13

Australian Pied Oystercatchers

New South Wales

9/12/16

16.16

Lone Pine Koala

Queensland

10/12/16

9.54

Lyrebird

South Queensland

10/12/16

10.23

Australian fig bird

Southern Papua New Guinea

11/12/16

10.12

Barn owl

Buttenshaw Park, Springwood

11/12/16

15.16

Masked booby

Sydney Sea beach

13/12/16

8.32

Dawson’s Burrowing Bee

WSU Hawkesbury campus near building L9

13/12/16

12.20

Green burrowing bee

WSU Hawkesbury campus near building G6

13/12/16

13.56

Table 1: Report f Focal Species sightings to Climate Watch

Discussion

According to ‘identifying the world's most climates change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals’, mountain pygmy, a living species belongs to a single species family. Climate changing has great effective and efficient threat on the specific species (Foden et al. 2013). Increasing temperature is also changing alpine areas. Increasing temperature are destroying the depth of snows and spoiling the balance of ecosystem.

As stated in ‘Restoring Native Forest Understory: The Influence of Ferns and Light in a Hawaiian Experiment’ masked booby is a large sea bird that belongs to sulidae family. Increasing temperature and the pH level of the sea water creates difficulties to the sea birds for sustaining (Gould et al. 2013). Small fishes and flying fish are the main food of masked booby. With the increasing water level of sea, the fishes are also decreasing in number. For this reason, masked booby became endangered species.

‘Mapping the Drivers of Climate Change Vulnerability for Australia’s Threatened Species’ showed that one of the vulnerable animals is amphibians who show vulnerability towards the climate change. Amphibians like golden bell frog have small distribution and they require specific moisture system and habits of aquatic animals. For the increase of greenhouse gasses, the regional area temperature is increasing and the amphibians are enlisted as endangered species (Lee et al. 2015). For ensuring the survival of the golden bell frogs, it is suggested not to manipulate the natural sources of water rather to use artificial water.

According to ‘An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot’ there are various native birds in Australia. Pied oystercatcher is one of the native birds of Australia that became endangered for the climate change. The pied oystercatcher mainly chooses bivalve mollusks and marine invertebrates for the feeding purpose. However, scientists have marked pied oystercatcher as endangered species in Australia, which is marked as secure species federally. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has figured that they found new evidences of changes in climate due to human behavior, which ahs bad effects on feeding and breeding system of pied oystercatcher (Wernberg et al. 2013).

‘Evidence, uncertainty, and wicked problems in climate change decision making in Australia’ pointed that Lone Pine Koala is a species, who live in forestry mainly. Humans destroy forestry and thus the increase of greenhouse gas is faster, which affects the changes in climate (Head 2014). Lone koala became endangered because of destroying forestry. They needs forestry to survive and live.

In ‘Climate change: the science, impacts and solutions’, it is seen that species including reptiles, amphibians, Avon and mammals became endangered species for climate changes. Birds like burn owl, lyrebird, reptiles like Green burrowing bee, Dawson’s Burrowing Bee are in danger. All of them need bushes and trees for making nests and breed purpose. Moreover, they have the power to survive in particular temperature that is increased. The species suffer a lot for surviving in high temperature. The depth of snow is decreasing and pH and temperature of water is increasing (Pittock 2013). The birds need to migrate for breeding purpose in other regional parts.

According to the journal ‘Climate change issues and impacts in the Wet Tropics NRM cluster region’, climate change badly affect the species that is the reason of species loss. In past 10,000 years the rate of global warming has increased faster. Some species are trying to adopt climate patterns. In these cases the able species can survive and the species who cannot survive, become vanished.

The limitations of Citizen Science projects are very meaningful. Non scientists have made clear and significant contribution to scientific research. Scientific institutions helps o arrange citizen science projects to make people conscious. Proper volunteers are necessary for the success of the projects. However, this makes the research method complicated. Lack of training disturbs the research protocols that are needed to be monitored (Hilbert et al. 2014). Manipulation of data and provide of wrong data distracts the projects. The cost of the citizen science projects is very high and the data quality may be of. not good and outweigh.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the discussion that the behavior of human should know that their activities are affecting climate changes to limit the activities. This can help to save the species that are endangered. The rise of sea level and melting of the ice is happening due to the climate change. However, to sustain in this condition, the regional species needs to adopt the changes to avoid the abolishment (Carroll et al. 2015). The species needs to be saved to maintain the balance of ecosystem ad biodiversity. Scientists are finding way to improve the situation by application of artificial solution. For example, to save the golden bell frog, they are trying to use artificial water instead of manipulating the original source of water.

References

Carroll, C., Rohlf, D.J., Li, Y.W., Hartl, B., Phillips, M.K. and Noss, R.F., 2015. Connectivity Conservation and Endangered Species Recovery: A Study in the Challenges of Defining Conservation?Reliant Species. Conservation Letters, 8(2), pp.132-138.

Castree, N., Adams, W.M., Barry, J., Brockington, D., B?scher, B., Corbera, E., Demeritt, D., Duffy, R., Felt, U., Neves, K. and Newell, P., 2014. Changing the intellectual climate. Nature climate change, 4(9), pp.763-768.

Foden, W.B., Butchart, S.H., Stuart, S.N., Vi?, J.C., Ak?akaya, H.R., Angulo, A., DeVantier, L.M., Gutsche, A., Turak, E., Cao, L. and Donner, S.D., 2013. Identifying the world's most climate change vulnerable species: a systematic trait-based assessment of all birds, amphibians and corals. PLoS One, 8(6), p.e65427.

Gould, R.K., Mooney, H., Nelson, L., Shallenberger, R. and Daily, G.C., 2013. Restoring Native Forest Understory: The Influence of Ferns and Light in a Hawaiian Experiment. Sustainability, 5(3), pp.1317-1339.

Head, B.W., 2014. Evidence, uncertainty, and wicked problems in climate change decision making in Australia. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, 32(4), pp.663-679.

Hilbert, D.W., Hill, R., Moran, C., Turton, S.M., Bohnet, I., Marshall, N.A., Pert, P.L., Stoeckl, N., Murphy, H.T., Reside, A.E. and Laurance, S.G.W., 2014. Climate change issues and impacts in the Wet Tropics NRM cluster region. James Cook University, Cairns.

Lee, J.R., Maggini, R., Taylor, M.F. and Fuller, R.A., 2015. Mapping the Drivers of Climate Change Vulnerability for Australia’s Threatened Species. PloS one, 10(5), p.e0124766.

Parmesan, C., Burrows, M.T., Duarte, C.M., Poloczanska, E.S., Richardson, A.J., Schoeman, D.S. and Singer, M.C., 2013. Beyond climate change attribution in conservation and ecological research. Ecology letters, 16(s1), pp.58-71.

Pittock, A.B., 2013. Climate change: the science, impacts and solutions. Routledge.

Wernberg, T., Smale, D.A., Tuya, F., Thomsen, M.S., Langlois, T.J., De Bettignies, T., Bennett, S. and Rousseaux, C.S., 2013. An extreme climatic event alters marine ecosystem structure in a global biodiversity hotspot. Nature Climate Change, 3(1), pp.78-82.

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