In the view point of Ang, Rockstuhl and Ng, (2014), the purpose of a research is to explain the variation in the world. Variables are the names given to the variance that a researcher wishes to explain in the study. In any kind of experiment, there remain two variables, the dependent one and the independent one. The variables are the forces or the parameters that causes a change in another variable. This particular journal is aimed at identifying the different variables used by Zhang and Oczkowski, (2016) in their study “Exploring the potential effects of expatriate adjustment direction”. A detailed analysis of the variables used in the quantitative study shall be carried on. The research is based on the cross-cultural adjustment of the assigned expatriates across the different cultural and national boundaries as a result of globalization. In addition to the investigation of the variables, the journal shall focus on the motivation including the variables in the conceptual framework and the scope of including other variables in the study.
Variables of the Research:
The major variables that have been recognized in this particular study are ‘cross-cultural adjustment’, ‘cultural intelligence’ and the ‘cultural adjustment’. Apart from these variables, there are other variables like age, gender, profession and workplace experience as well that have been recognized as other variables of the study (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). These variables can be explained below:
Dependent variables are the ones that are affected at the time of conducting a research. ‘Cross-cultural adjustment’ (CCA) is the dependent variable of the study (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). Cross cultural adjustment has been defined as the major psychological factor, commonly known as psychological shocks that are the characteristics of certain symptoms of an individual to act according to the situation. As pointed out by Crowne, (2013), culturally adjusted expatriates tend to be more open to the host culture. They are able to add new behaviors and norms according to the host countries. The complete research paper is based on this depended variable.
Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated at the time of conducting the research. The independent variable that has been identified in this study is ‘cultural intelligence’ (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). According to Malek and Budhwar, (2013), cultural intelligence is the capability of a person to relate and work effectively in a cross cultural environment. The cultural intelligence of a person depends on the factors like attitude, cognitive power and the belief of a person. Cultural intelligence or cultural asymmetry has the moderate impact on adjusting the changes and the challenges in the environment.
The intervening or the intermediary variable is the one that is used to get a link between the two variables used in the research study. The intervening variable used by Zhang and Oczkowski, (2016) is adjustment direction. It is the capability of a person to cope up with the situation where they belong to in case if there is a difference in the culture of the people present in a particular place. This variable has been useful in understanding the relationship between the variable and independent variable.
Motivation for Including the Variables in the Conceptual Framework of the Research:
The aim of including these variables in the theoretical framework of the study is to incorporate the crucial elements that manipulate the ability of a person to cope up with the situation with culturally different people (?ahin, Gurbuz & K?ksal, 2014). In order to uncover the important empirical relationship between the two variables, it is important to create a two-way flow expatriation and this motivates the authors to incorporate the two variables in the conceptual framework of the study (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). In addition to this, the ability of a person to adjust with the situation and the outcome of the adjustment is equally important. These are the reasons for incorporating the variables in the conceptual framework.
Means of Measuring the Variables:
The authors have used the sampling size of 200 respondents in deriving at a particular conclusion. The Australian expatriate in China and the Chinese expatriates in Australia were the major focus group of the study. The under graduated students were the major focus groups who were taken into consideration for the particular research study. The dependent variable cross-cultural adjustment has been represented by two sub-constructs SCA and PCA. In order to evaluate this, SCA was measured using the Black and Stephens’s 14-item scale formula (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). On the other hand, PCA the 12-item general health scale has been applied to monitor the different levels of well-being of the employees in organizational contexts (Zhang & Oczkowski, 2016). The relationship between the cognitive behavioral cultural intelligence has been measured by the means of these formulae.
Scope of Including Other Important Variables:
If the establishment of the variables that have already been used in the study is considered, it has to be said that there remain the scope of including a number of other variables as well. The most important variables that have better scope of including in the study are age, gender, cognitive behavior, experience of the person with other different cultures. Of these mentioned variables, profession and the experience of dealing with people from other culture can be considered as the most important variables that would shape the research study in the right direction.
An analysis of the different variables used by the author in the study has been done in this journal. The empirical study undertaken by the author has a number of variables that have been nicely assimilated to get the prospected outcome. The conceptual framework used by the authors helped to create a better understanding of the entire study in a glimpse. In addition to this, a number of variables that could be included in the study has also been proposed. It can be easily assumed that age, gender, experience and profession of a person are important factors that link cultural intelligence with cross cultural adjustment.
Ang, S., Rockstuhl, T., & Ng, K. Y. (2014). Performance-based cultural intelligence (CQ): Development and validation of an intercultural situational judgment test (iSJT). Center for Leadership and Cultural Intelligence.
Crowne, K. A. (2013). Cultural exposure, emotional intelligence, and cultural intelligence: An exploratory study. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 13(1), 5-22.
Malek, M. A., & Budhwar, P. (2013). Cultural intelligence as a predictor of expatriate adjustment and performance in Malaysia. Journal of world business, 48(2), 222-231.
?ahin, F., Gurbuz, S., & K?ksal, O. (2014). Cultural intelligence (CQ) in action: The effects of personality and international assignment on the development of CQ. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 39, 152-163.
Zhang, Y., & Oczkowski, E. (2016). Exploring the potential effects of expatriate adjustment direction. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(1), 158-183.