Motivation in the workplace is the psychological force that can determine the direction of an individual’s needs goals and behaviours; an individual’s level of effort is also associated along with individual’s level of persistence (Hitka & Balazova, 2015). Within the workplace, there are some driving forces that prompt the employees to gain the objectives. This motivation of the employees can be compared to self and ideal self. Each of the individuals has self-identity in terms of strengths, weaknesses, abilities and beliefs. Needs of the employees are experienced through differences between actual self and ideal self and employees' needs within an organisation are the recognition, praises, rewards and monetary benefits. In addition, as stated by Polat, Bal & Jansen (2017), goals of the employees are the milestones that an individual believes to be the remedy of the deficiencies.
All employees have a different set of expectations from the employers and motives and drivers of the expectations lead to achieving the objectives of the employees. Some employees are intrinsically motivated because the employees feel the interest and enjoyment in the work. Intrinsic motivations come from the purpose, enjoyment, growth, curiosity, passion and self-expression within the workplace. On the other side, the extrinsic motivation of the employees come from the pay raises, promotions, bonuses, benefits, perks and rewards and recognition. The employees can be extrinsically motivated because of the outcomes that would result by doing the tasks. According to Hauser (2014), human beings have strong social impulses; satisfaction of needs and expectations come from the intrinsic rewards, extrinsic rewards and social rewards.
Examples and theories of motivation from different sources
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory comprises five human needs and Maslow initially averred that humans must satisfy the lower deficit needs before developing on to meet the higher growth of needs. When the needs are met, the motivation of the employees grows automatically (Jonas, 2016). Growth needs do not come from lack of something, however from the desires to grow as human beings. Within a workplace, when the growth needs are reasonably satisfied. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs have five stages and each of the stages describes the needs of the human beings.
Biological and psychological needs: The human beings need a drink, shelter, food, air, sleep, warmth and sex.
Safety needs: The human beings need protection from the elements, order, security, laws, freedom from fear and stability.
Belongingness needs: The human beings need intimacy, friendship, trust, acceptance, giving affection, receiving love, affiliating, love to be a part of a group that could be friends, work and family.
Esteem needs: Human beings have two types of esteem needs as Maslow classified, first one is about esteem for oneself and it can come from achievement, dignity, independence and mastery. Secondly, esteem needs also come from the desire for respect, reputation from others and it can come from prestige and status. According to Haider et al. (2018), the needs for reputation and respect are significant for employees to continue their employment with dignity.
Self-actualisation needs: The common human beings need to understand the personal potential and they can seek the personal growth. The individuals can reach the peak of experience and self-fulfilment. Self-actualisation needs are inexhaustible and these are typically concerned with individuals' need to understand the potential (Mikkelsen, Jacobsen & Andersen, 2017).
Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory states about certain elements in the workplace which cause job satisfaction, whereas, some other factors in the workplace can cause dissatisfaction also. People in the workplace are motivated by the elements that make the employees feel good at the workplace and aversion to those things can make them feel bad. Herzberg divided the elements into major groups and he did not name these elements as ‘needs’. Hygiene factors in the workplace cause dissatisfaction if the employees face lack of these elements. Hygiene factors are associated with the salary, working condition, job security, quality of supervision, administration company policy and interpersonal relations of the employees. Hygiene factors in the workplace are like preventive medicines that these factors can stop the dissatisfaction of the employees (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl & Maude, 2017). On the other side, the employees feel motivated in the presence of motivators in the workplace; the motivators in the workplace are a sense of achievement, responsibility and recognition, nature of work, career advancement and personal growth.
Analysing the practice adopted by organisations to influence individual behaviour
Employees’ behaviour within the organisation can be influenced by many factors. Mainly, the employees’ behaviour can be influenced by the intellectual abilities, physical abilities and self-awareness abilities (Hanson, 2015). Race and culture of the employees are other factors those can influence the employees to work in a different way as in today's diverse work culture helps the employees to learn and accept various wok culture. As opined by Njoroge & Yazdanifard (2014), employees’ perception can influence the behaviour of the employees like perceptions of speech, taste, sound and social world. Attribution is the observing behaviour followed by the determining its cause and it is based on person’s situation and personality. The organisation can take the practice of team meeting to understand the desires of the employees. In the team meeting, the managers get to know about the intrinsic motivation of the team members. Managers can objectify the extrinsic motivation to the team members so that they can put their best efforts in order to meet the organisational objectives. The employers can take the practice of face-to-face feedback sessions so that the managers can understand the desires of the employees individually and the managers can focus to understand the needs and wants of the staffs. In these meetings and feedback sessions, the managers can state the employees how to work effectively in the workplace. In addition, according to Gopal & Chowdhury (2014), the employers need to learn and acknowledge the employees’ personal career objectives. This practice of the employers can track the employees’ specific career objectives and the employees will act according to the needs of career. Moreover, the employers can provide job security and this will motivate the employees to provide their best within the workplace. This practice can more likely to positively affect the motivation of the employees. Above all, the employers can start a reward and recognition scheme; the employees will always try to gain that benchmark in order to get the extra benefits from the organisation. Additionally, the employers need to provide an atmosphere to the employees so that the employees can work in friendly work culture and the supervisors and team members must help the employees to work in a better and healthy way.
The organisations should provide psychological needs to the employees to work in a comfortable way and the employers need to provide motivation through giving the employees access to the restroom, food, breaks and drinks. The organisation needs to provide safety to the employees providing professional security like job security, ergonomic furniture and secured workplace. As argued by Lau & Roopnarain (2014), the employees must feel like belonging to the organisation and it would be helpful for the employers to get attached to the employees. Companies with social and camaraderie-building activities can provide a higher degree of employee engagement. In addition, Accenture believes that confidence of the employees is the key and the management of Accenture always try to provide confidence so that the employees must believe in themselves. Lastly, self-actualisation can come from ensuring the positions of the employees at the right place. According to Barrick et al., (2015), the management executives of the organisations must communicate better through print media, newsletter or digital media so that the employees must know about their responsibilities. The leaders can set the example of what the leaders actually want from the employees. In addition, the management can empower the employees in order to have better outcomes and the management needs to offer opportunities for advancement. Motivators must be present in the workplace and the employees will not feel the dissatisfaction.
Exploring the advantages and disadvantages of the theories presented in obtaining organisational effectiveness
Within an organisation, Maslow’s hierarchy of motivation can assist the managers to understand process to motivate to the employees. In addition, Maslow’s hierarchy of motivation concept is very simple and it can commonly be used. The managers can easily understand the concept of Maslow’s hierarchy. The employees have different types of needs and it accounts for both intra-personal and inter-personal variations in the behaviour of human beings. Moreover, Maslow’s theory concept is dynamic and it can present the motivation of changing force and it can also change the level of needs of the employees (Massenberg, Spurk & Kauffeld, 2015). On the other side, Maslow's theory lacks the hierarchical structure and it has ordered for the need satisfaction. This concept lacks the direct use of cause and effect relationship between needs of human and their behaviour. Maslow's theory has some of the important assumptions as Maslow's needs at one level cannot normally play important part in motivation until another level of motivation has been satisfied.
The organisations can eliminate potential job satisfaction through fixing uncooperative and poor rules and policies. The managers can provide effective and non-intrusive control over the employees and the managers need to build and support the workplace culture through mitigating the dissatisfaction. The managers must make sure the wages that should be competitive. Job satisfaction can come from the employee safety and security. As stated by Steers, Mowday & DL Shapiro (2004), the main limitation of Herzberg's theory is that it overlooks the situational variables and it fails to use the comprehensive measure; it also overlooks the blue-collar employees.
Change management within an organisation is a systematic approach to deal with transformation or transition of the organisational goals, technologies and processes. As stated by Eason (2014), the purpose of the change within an organisation is to implement the strategies of effecting changes, control the changes and help individuals to adapt to changes. Within an organisation, there are two kinds of changes, individual and organisational change. In addition, individual change is associated with the understanding one employees can successfully make the changes. In addition, organisational changes are associated with using tools to make the changes. Organisations need to take the structured approach to communicate perfectly and employees must be given training for this. According to Lozano, Ceulemans & Seatter (2015), change management methodology helps to plan the change management activities, it can help to diagnose the change and it helps to develop corrective action. Hard Systems Model of change can be defined as process to implement and designing the change along with condition that has the features of hard complexity. The problems must be understood and agreed by employees (Lozano, Nummert & Ceulemans, 2016).
Analysing the practice of organisational change methodology by a discussion of the distinction between the hard and soft systems models of change
The organisations must prepare for the change and the management needs to understand how much change management it needs an initiative of the change management (Godemann et al., 2014). In order to manage the change, the management body can make communication plan, sponsor the roadmap of the plan and training plan associated with this. Lastly, the organisation can reinforce the change as it is associated with ensuring the change and measuring the mechanism associated with this. Organisations can follow the change management methodology as it starts with the employees' awareness of the need for the change, the employees must desire to collaborate in and support the change for good. The employees can gain the knowledge how the change can begin and the management must ensure the ability to implement the behaviours and required skills (Waddell et al., 2016). The individuals can reinforce to sustain the change.
As stated by Zeng, Phan & Matsui (2015), the problems are ‘hard’ in nature and implementation may face the resistance of change. Implementation is usually a test of how many individuals are associated with the change. Change can create minor upset in some departments of the organisation's internal environment and this change can be called incremental change. Moreover, external change can cause the disturbance to provide a wide-ranging impact on organisational process, structure and strategy. The problems vary according to the seriousness and complexity ranging from major catastrophes to minor upsets, from temporary issues to gnawing tangles. Paton & MCCalman (2008), used first ‘hard and soft’ words to describe two types of change management related problems. Further, ‘difficulties’ word stands for ‘hard’ and ‘messes’ word stands for ‘soft’.
‘Hard' systems tend to be used in smaller scale and they are less serious in their implication. Hard systems are bounded and they can be considered in relative isolation and hard systems have clear priorities as to what might need to be done (Prosci.com, 2018). On the other side, messes are unbounded tend to be in larger scale and they have worrying and serious implications for all concerned. Hard systems have quantifiable objectives and soft systems have subjective and semi-quantifiable objectives (Day et al., 2015). Hard systems involve relatively few people and these can contribute to the situation. Hard Systems model do agreement by the employees involved on what constituting the problems, on the other side, soft systems model have little agreement on what constitutes the issue. Hard systems model can tend to have solutions and soft systems model cannot solve quickly and it can help to bring the solution.
Analysing how these models might work by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of the theories presented
Organisations can follow the change management methodology as it starts with the employees' awareness of the need for the change. The employees must desire to collaborate in and support the change for good. The employees can gain the knowledge how the change can begin and the management must ensure the ability to implement the behaviours and required skills (Doppelt, 2017). The individuals can reinforce to sustain the change. Soft system can be perspective on the real world and hard system as the concept that comes from theories. The difficulties problem is just concerned about things that are changing. It is totally different from messes’ problems concept. Both the ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ are simply limited sorts of problems whereas, messes are larger and more taxing for those who want kind of changes to resolve the issues.
The benefits of Hard Systems model is that they can identify the problem and opportunity and they describe the system as it can currently use. Hard Systems model can describe the system as it would be ideal and it can evaluate the metrics by which the routes are identified (Senior & Fleming, 2006). On the other side, organisations can face issue when utilising this concept as people can affect the change and they must consult as early as possible. The people must keep in mind about the design and implementation of operational and localised type of change. The decision-makers will not find the information easily and quickly and testing process of the changes might be a time-consuming process (Hayes, 2014).
On the other side, the advantage of soft systems model is to increase the understanding of the issue during the investigation process and in the later stages. This technique can help to recognise the areas that should be developed and this process helps to identify the areas of weaknesses of the organisation. As stated by Goetsch & Davis (2014), soft system model helps to define the solution as it defines the issue and soft system relies mainly on holistic view. Soft system model mostly relies on the equipment; not just on pen and paper. As argued by Checkland & Scholes (2017), disadvantages of soft system model are that it does not tell about the process of system building. The problems can be changed anytime and it relies heavily on the people. Sift systems model is time-consuming and it requires experts and money.
Critically analysing the factors to take into account when considering hard systems approaches to change
The outcomes of the different interpretations of complexity can be described through hard complexity as the characteristic of the issues that lend to qualification and an optimal solution. Soft complexity is indicative towards the condition where the description of the events is ambiguous. Hard System Model of change starts with analysis of situation summary, this stage is featured by hard complexity (Prsci.com, 2018). The organisation's analyses ‘closeness to certainty' and unitary assumption related to the shareholder relationship. In addition, it can be a mess and far from the certainty situation. The organisation must recognise the factors those must create high impact on the process or system to cause inter-relate (Balogun & Hope Hailey, 2004). Hard System Model lets the organisation recognise the change objectives that contribute the sub-objectives to contribute towards this. The change objective should be relevant and it should give a guide towards the desired solution. In addition, performance measure of the objective can be done through the costs in cash, saving the cash, sales volume and percentage of meeting the quality standard. The organisation can focus on option generation and this process is full of the process of bringing the change rather than ends of the change (Burnes, 2004). The Hard Systems method can make the change in creative thinking techniques. The organisation tries to evaluate the options and each option must be combined and exclusive. In addition, Hard System approach is helpful when searching the process and to control the hard factors in the implementation phase. The Hard System focuses on achieving the organisational goal as well as the individual goal. Hard System method approach focuses on the multiple dimensions of management. The factors of describing and diagnosing the situation and factors related setting the objectives for the changes are needed (Dunphy & Stace, 1993). The factors of putting the feasible plans into practice are associated with monitoring the result.
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Change Management Methodology | Prosci. (2018). Prosci.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018, from