PSY611- Evidence Based Intervention Strategy Essay

Questions:

The broad aims of this unit are to:
1. To contribute to the Australian Psychology Accreditation Council’s requirements for demonstrating competency in postgraduate psychology
2. Promote exploration and understanding of the experience and behaviour of people at work and in organisations through critical evaluation of literature.
3. Develop understanding of the role psychology may play in improving quality of work life and organizational outcomes.
4. Develop specific knowledge and understanding of the issues of employee health, safety and well-being in occupational settings, through engagement with the research literature and active involvement in module forums.
5. Develop a theoretical and practical resource compendium for use in future practice. This will be achieved through completion of assignments.

Answers:

Introduction

Personal protective clothing and equipment ought to be utilized in organizations especially by the workforce in order to prevent themselves from various risks and harmful hazards. The various hazards could arise through the course of performing their respective work or task. Protective clothing and equipment were taken as the last line of defense for the workforce against various kinds of hazards after the failure of engineering measures. Personal protective clothing and equipment are the devices that the industrial workers need to wear before handling any machinery or performing a particular task (Bateman, 2015). The manager, as well as the employees, should put their efforts into developing strategies to prevent any hazardous incidents and to protect themselves through maintaining and establishing a healthy work environment. The employer should provide proper personal protective clothing and equipment to all the workers in order to safeguard their life from any disaster. There are some definite roles need to be carried out. First, one is to carry out assessment upon possible hazardous events that turn out to be significant to identify health and physical hazards (Den Boon et al., 2018). Secondly, the employer is responsible to provide required preventive tools that would be required by the workers for carrying out any activity. Lastly, the employer has to make sure that the employees possess the necessary knowledge about protective tools by providing organized training. Examination upon the safety of work environment in the organization is necessary and must include accident causation models. The management should focus on the implementation of well-being programs within the workplace. It also comprises of the proper development of safety culture along with the strategies upon disaster management.

Statement of Problem

The workplace setting of the organizations often observes serious diseases and disabilities because of the unawareness or ignorance of the employees about the occupational hazards and safety measurements. The management as well as employees are often not alert about the health safety risk and do not take necessary precaution. In this matter, the promotion of the use of protecting clothes and equipment is one of the most important tasks in the workplace setting in order to manage the issues regarding workplace diseases and disabilities. However, many organizations and their employees do not still understand the importance of the protecting clothes and equipment for reducing the health safety hazards in their workplace (Giannandrea, Settimi & Figa Talamanca, 2008).

Description of key Population

The key population, which will be considered for the study will be the management and employees of the workplaces where the cases of occupational hazardous are a most common incident. In this context, the factories are ideal examples of the study where the health safety issues are omnipresent. In the factory setting, there are most probabilities of health and safety hazards. Moreover, due to the health and safety hazards in the workplaces in these factory settings, the diseases and disabilities are common among the employees who work in these factories. Hence, the promotion of the use of protecting clothes and equipment is most important in the factory setting. In this context, the people who are working in the factories are the main target population of the study as they should be aware of the uses of protecting clothes as well as equipment that support them in avoiding any types of health safety issues (Hersi et al., 2015).

Apart from the employees as well as management staffs of the factory setting, the health and safety issues are most prevalent in the healthcare settings. In the healthcare setting, the risks of health and safety issues associated with the employees are increasingly growing. The reason behind the increasingly growing healthcare and safety issues among the healthcare professionals like nurses and another professional who are directly involved with the patient care often stays at serious risk s of healthcare and safety hazards. The nurses of the healthcare setting are mainly involved with the patient care and often the nurses are unaware of the care of the infection and manage the patients who have infectious diseases. Hence, the nurses are prone to be infected by their patients whom they provide care services (Honda & Iwata, 2016). The appropriate uses of the protecting clothes and equipment can help the nurses as well as other healthcare professionals who are involved with the patient care. Hence, the nurses are also considered for the research study and they are a key population of the study.

Definition of Key Constructs

The key construct or the key terms which will involve with the research study are as follows:

Health: As per the World Health Organization (WHO), the health is the condition of full physical, emotional as well as the social well-being of an individual. Moreover, it is not only the absence of the diseases or the infirmity of an individual person.

Occupational Hazards: These are situations within the organization settings or those involved with the jobs which have the possibility of a cause of injury as well as damage to an individual. The occupational hazards are the health and safety risks associated with the workplace setting that hamper the health and well being of the people who are working in the organization (Howe, 2015).

Factory: As per the business context, the factory implies any of the premises in where one or more persons are deployed to run the following:

  • Producing any article or any part of an article
  • Altering or mending, ornamenting, completing, washing or breaking an article in premises.

Accident: As per the international labor organization (ILO) the accident can be defined as the unexpected as well as unanticipated incidences that may cause injury and loss of property and life.

Occupational Diseases: The occupational diseases can be defined as the abnormality in the body that rise or the courses of an individual employment or any types of chronic ailments which happens as the outcomes of work or occupational activity (Huang, 2011).

Method and Design of Intervention

An evidence-based cross-sectional study is depicted to be conducted in the hospital which is found to be aiming at addressing the issues and also the application of the best practices is depicted to be carried out with including the chosen approach. The process present in the form of the professional opportunities for carrying out the examination process is focused in this study. The practical guides can be easily determined by carrying out the appropriate structuring of the simple random sampling processes. The simple random sampling processes will enable the researcher to gather the data for carrying out the recording of the observational readings as per the practices are determined in this study. The multivariate analysis is structured which is surrounding the explanatory as well as the dependent variables (Hung, Choi & Chiang, 2015). The determination of the magnitude of the personal protective equipment utilization is depicted to be determined in the hospitals which are targeted for purpose of designing the interventions. The strengthening of the safety programs and the utilization of the personal protective equipment are depicted to be associated with the implementation of the use of the protective equipment are essential.

Apart from this, the questionnaires are designed with aiming at determining the outcomes of the PPE usages. The hazardous drug spills are depicted to be prohibited by the usage of the PPE and also the measures are undertaken with carrying out the Donalbedian Quality of Care Model. The framework is depicted to be structured with including all the PPE outcomes as well as it is depicted to be illustrating the scale measurement of Drug Handling Processes (McGoldrick, 2015). The second outcomes are depicted to be focusing on carrying out the appropriate development of the processes in the form of the binary outcomes. The lack of the care related to the handling of the hazardous materials is depicted to be focused on the implementation of this process.

Discussion and Rationale for each of the Strategies

The statistical analysis strategy is undertaken which is depicted to be performed with including the dependent and the independent variables. The bi-variate and the multivariate analysis will be undertaken for distributing the outcomes and also the linear regression models. The estimation of the PPE used in generalizing the process of estimating the equations as specified in this study. The account is depicted to be focusing on clustering of nurses within the practices by which the examination of the factors will enable them to focus on the activities as identified in this study. The estimation is carried out with achieving the processes by which the variation of the activities can be easily determined. The multivariate logistic regression model is depicted to be estimated with including the generalized estimating equations (Porter, 2009). The achievement of the parsimonious model is depicted to be creating backward selection procedures and also it is enabled for carrying out the interaction processes by removing the barriers to PPE. The surveys are depicted to be focusing on carrying out the appropriate average direct care workload processes which are represented by including the nurses shifting hours. The handling of the chemical and the other equipment must be properly carried out including all the patient processes (Potter, 2006).

Evidence that the intervention is based on empirical research

The evidence which is found to be supporting that the intervention is depicted to be dependent on the empirical research is indicating the processes implemented while designing the study processes. The preparation of interventions for the purpose of removing the differences is indicating the analytic sample and the exclusion of the inappropriate participants. The multivariate linear model is depicted to be dependent on the outcomes of the PPE. It is identified to be carried out with including the appropriate development of the approaches by which the changes in the final analytic processes as it is including the proper development of the analytic approaches (Raj, 2017). The significant development of the activities is depicted to be dependent on administering the activities by which the appropriate development of the activities can be easily made. It is found to be aiming at providing the development of the significant differences by which the analytic processes can be easily executed in the process of differentiating the units. The segregation of the routine administration processes as well as the administering of the hazardous processes are indicating the appropriate identification of the administering processes. The closed system transferring of the devices will enable to create a protective environment by which the administering of the hazardous materials can be easily made in an appropriate way (Tipwareerom & Weglicki, 2017). The focus on implementing the multivariate model will enable to gather the outcomes with adjusting the non-profit ownership and also the reduction in the number of the variables is depicted to be included with carrying out the appropriate approaches in this process. The enhancement of the approaches will enable to carry out the workloads with including the highest scores on the PPE scales. The collegial nurse-physician processes with strengthen the usage of the PPE in a protective way and also it is found to be mitigating the malfunctioning processes. Thus, the evidence is depicted to be dependent on the processes as the appropriate approaches to increasing the responsibilities are depicted to be identified in this study. The participation in the practices of the affairs related to the arrangement of the PPE is leading to the development of the inappropriate management skills (Valdez, 2015).

Design of Evaluation

The protective clothing and equipment will be designed to be worn by the nurses to be protected from the risk of illness or risk. The protective equipment is as follows:

  • Hearing protective devices such as ear plugs and ear muffs.
  • Equipment for protecting respiratory
  • Face and eye protection such as face shields and safety glasses
  • Skin protection such as sunscreen, gauntlets, and gloves
  • Clothing that can provide appropriate protection

The equipment and clothes need to be designed as per the comfort of the nurses. The nurses need to take the comfort and fit of protective equipment and clothing by taking into consideration the selection of most appropriate items. The protective equipment and clothing will the nurses to get protection while carrying out their works (Wyeth, 2013). It is very much important for the nurses to wear appropriate and right protective equipment and clothing for keeping themselves protected from being infected and preventing the spread of illness from the patients. The nurses should know what protective equipment and clothing should be used in different situations.

Measures for Evaluation

The protective equipment and clothing need to be used by the nurses to get protected from the germs and infections. The nurses need to take appropriate measures in order to create a barrier between the fungi or bacteria and viruses. The protective equipment and clothing should include face shields, masks, goggles, gowns, and gloves. The surgical masks can be used for covering mouth and nose and preventing the germs to enter. The masks in some situation can be needed a respirator. The respirator tightly fits and develops a seal around the mouth and nose for preventing the small droplet to enter into the body (Tadesse, Kelaye & Assefa, 2016). The respirator is of different sizes and it is important to wear appropriate size which will fit as per their requirement. The face shields and goggles can be used for preventing the fluids of the body from contact with the eyes' mucous membranes. The shoe coverings, gloves, and gowns can be used for preventing contact with the germs. The nurses need to select the right equipment on the basis of the type of infection or germ. For example, a mask can be wear to prevent some types of infection and in some situation gloves and gown can be needed. The type of exposure will assist to select the right equipment. The gloves, gown, and masks should be wearing if the nurses are handling body fluids or open wounds (Lu et al., 2015). The nurses should use the personal equipment and clothes in order to prevent any infection or disease. They should use gloves, goggles, and masks. The equipment should be immediately removed as soon as the nurses done the treatment of the patient. It is also important to pay attention while removing equipment for avoiding the contamination.

Data Analysis methods to be used

The random sampling method of analyzing the gathered data can be used which will indicate the appropriate gathering of the data as per the method is determined in this study. The non-profit multivariate analysis process will enable to determine the participation processes, as well as the active gathering of the activities, can be easily made in an appropriate way (Fischer, Hynes, & Perl, 2014). The focus on making the improvement in the form of associated relationships and the changes in the association of the scores can be easily measured. The development of the administration process will enable them to focus on carrying out the activities as well as it will enable them to focus on carrying out the activities in an appropriate way. Apart from this, the changes in the administration and the removal of the PPE malfunctioning processes can be easily made (Parks, 2009). About all the nurses are targeted by all the targeted hospitals present in Australia. The changes in the process of gathering data will enable to remove the malfunctioning of the PPE equipments. The data collection processes will enable the researcher to make the enhancement in the analysis process.

Critique

Almost 90% of studies suggested that the healthcare workers are infecting due to the transmission of the virus from the infected patients. One study report suggested that viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) are an issue. Because, according to the study, VHF can be affected by the virus of the infected patients. Some of the studies reported that virus transmission depended on the polymerase chain reaction, symptoms and serology for healthcare workers (Den Boon et al., 2018). The requirement for PPE is considered to be examined based on the person who is considered to be competent to analyze and judge the method of risk related control. It can offer better protection and safety and health for the particular provision of proper. Professional advice is considered to be mandatory and essential which help to identify the most suitable type of the PPE for the overall task which is required to be carried out in a properly controlled manner. Training is necessary to be provided to the supervisor and the employees, which help them to enable to ensure the proper selection, cleaning maintenance of PPE along with proper usage. Supervision and key enforcement is required to be assisted according to the PPE policy. Suitable PPE is considered to be provided for several visitors who may be considered to be exposed to the key hazardous in the workplace (Haugen & Musser, 2012).

The limitations are depicted to be dependent on the labor department for the purpose of raising the cause of discomfort in wearing. It is leading to the development of the perspiration problem or limiting the mobility as well as the visibility to the promotional program. The documentation is carried out in the form of the safety manual which is identified to be including the procedures. At the time of the emergency, the lack of implementing the PPE is raising the development of the limitations by which the inappropriate development of the training processes is seen. The prohibition of the processes related to the occupational safety and the health processes are indicating a limiting factor which is raised during the period of emergency (Miller, 2011).

Conclusion

As mentioned in this study, it is important for both the employer as well as employees to work in a combined way in order to safeguard the work environment. Occupational health and safety must not be merely a sideline as the problem for service delivery (Boone, 2014). Wellbeing and health of workers are acknowledged as the significant aspect for employee's job satisfaction and their motivation. This could influence their retention as well as their productivity in the organization. Safety of employees also influences the quality of concern. The priority should be giving care to the caregiver must be the concerned area of the health system. Multi-stakeholder initiatives, which comprise national advocacy policy, a global principle with the participation of professional health facilities that could help organizational health and safety, risk mitigation programs in order to remove the gaps. The approach of protective clothing and equipment represents a vital means for introducing organizational health and safety policies into practice (Hunnicutt, 2010).

References

Bateman, C. (2015). Healthcare workers balk at caring for contagious patients. South African Medical Journal, 105(6), p.431.

Boone, S. (2014). Using Organizational Learning To Increase Operational And Conceptual Mental Models Within Professional Learning Communities. Journal Of Psychological Issues In Organizational Culture 5 (3): 85-99. doi:10.1002/jpoc.21152.

Den Boon, S., Vallenas, C., Ferri, M. & Norris, S. (2018). Incorporating health workers’ perspectives into a WHO guideline on personal protective equipment developed during an Ebola virus disease outbreak. F1000Research, 7, p.45.

Fischer, W., Hynes, N. & Perl, T. (2014). Protecting Health Care Workers From Ebola: Personal Protective Equipment Is Critical but Is Not Enough. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161(10), p.753.

Giannandrea, F., Settimi, L. & Figa Talamanca, I. (2008). The use of personal protective equipment in pregnant greenhouse workers. Occupational Medicine, 58(1), pp.52-57.

Haugen, D. & Musser, S. (2012). Health care. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

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Bibliography

Boone, S. (2014). Using Organizational Learning To Increase Operational And Conceptual Mental Models Within Professional Learning Communities. Journal Of Psychological Issues In Organizational Culture 5 (3): 85-99. doi:10.1002/jpoc.21152.

Den Boon, S., Vallenas, C., Ferri, M. & Norris, S. (2018). Incorporating health workers’ perspectives into a WHO guideline on personal protective equipment developed during an Ebola virus disease outbreak. F1000Research, 7, p.45.

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Fischer, W., Hynes, N. & Perl, T. (2014). Protecting Health Care Workers From Ebola: Personal Protective Equipment Is Critical but Is Not Enough. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161(10), p.753.

Giannandrea, F., Settimi, L. & Figa Talamanca, I. (2008). The use of personal protective equipment in pregnant greenhouse workers. Occupational Medicine, 58(1), pp.52-57.

Haugen, D. & Musser, S. (2012). Health care. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

Hersi, M., Stevens, A., Quach, P., Hamel, C., Thavorn, K., Garritty, C., Skidmore, B., Vallenas, C., Norris, S., Egger, M., Eremin, S., Ferri, M., Shindo, N. & Moher, D. (2015). The effectiveness of Personal Protective Equipment for Healthcare Workers Caring for Patients with Filovirus Disease: A Rapid Review. PLOS ONE, 10(10), p.e0140290.

Honda, H. & Iwata, K. (2016). Personal protective equipment and improving compliance among healthcare workers in high-risk settings. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, 29(4), pp.400-406.

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