Provides New Insights Into Pathophysiology Essay

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Discuss About The Provides New Insights Into Pathophysiology.

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Introduction

Conventionally, patients with chronic illnesses are adversely affected by depression and stigma. Jean, a 55-year-old woman who is diabetic, is no exception. Therefore, such people need to be adequately taken care of. There is a complex relationship between diabetes and depression. Additionally, individuals with diabetes normally have a reduction in their quality of life; perform poorly in both daily and work-related activities. Other implications of depression are amplified health threats, lengthy hospital admission and decreased adherence to treatment. For instance, Jean frequently forgets about her medication when she perceives to be feeling well. In most cases, this leads to increased costs of medication because of the advancement of her diabetic condition.

Persons with diabetes learn to live each day differently. For some, the ailments negatively control their lives. Consequently, their lives might become a constant source of demoralization and stress. The significance of medical practitioners providing advocacy and making sure there is improved patient care that is patient-tailored according to needs cannot be overlooked. The challenges related to availing all-inclusive and efficient care have increased as the number of people with diabetes rise (Pociot et al, 2010, 1563). The intensity of the ailment sometimes does not make taking care of a patient a complex issue but concerns such as social support, health literacy, economic factors are responsible. For example, Jean is aware that smoking is unhealthy and may even intensify her diabetic situation but she still smokes.

Establishing care plans for patients with diabetes like Jean is vital. Several factors ought to be considered and implemented. A patient’s medical situation should be considered to help in creating an appropriate care plan. A strong medical practitioner-patient relationship should be developed to enhance easier delivery of the care (Strawbridge et al, 2011, 2624). Moreover, the care ought to be patient specific. For instance, in developing Jean’s medical care plan, there should be a consideration on how to reduce both her weight and smoking to improve her diabetic situation. Information should be collected and evaluation is done to determine if Jean is positively improving.

When developing Jean’s care plan it is imperative to consider how she can mitigate her depression and stigma. Subsequently, this is because the chronic ailment, diabetes, imposes diverse constraints on patient’s lives (Rosenstock et al, 2014, 1820). The stigma that is as a result of Jean’s diabetes adds extra burdens more than those caused by the ailment. Aiding people to reduce stress related to medical conditions is difficult such as Jean’s feeling of social isolation, that, no one at the hospital seems to care about her. On the contrary, knowledgeable and constant interventions aimed particularly at reducing her stigma will help greatly. The relations between patients and healthcare professionals are fundamental in providing care (Floegel et al, 2013, 643). Healthcare professional’s awareness of their biases, behaviors, and beliefs is key in reducing stigma effects. Being knowledgeable about the societal implications and context that diagnoses of diabetes have enables healthcare professionals to work well with patients in developing relevant strategies to evade, lower or cope with probable stigmatizing conditions.

The way in which care is delivered might decrease or increase stigma. For example, the medical care provided to Jean may not be appropriate if she feels not taken care of. Involving Jean in making health-related decisions is a paramount step in mitigating her feeling of social isolation. Encompassing a patient in making decisions demonstrates a healthcare professional’s value of the patient. On the contrary, when medical verdicts are made deprived of consultation they reinforce feelings of one being discredited (Breton et al, 2012, 2235). Therefore, any care plan which emphasizes patient participation is essential in enhancing Jean’s perception of self-esteem hence reducing stigma caused by diabetes.

In developing an effective care plan the patient ought to be fully satisfied with the decisions and recommendations provided. In the same token, all parties involved depend on information from each other. This is the only way to improve the health of a patient faster. Healthcare providers need to utilize information from their clients to decipher their priorities, goals, and expectations. If health practitioners allow patients to have a greater participation in making decisions, the relationship diminishes some stigma associated with the chronic illness such diabetes (Pociot et al, 2010, 1565). Furthermore, medical providers should create an environment where Jean will automatically cooperate hence air out her concerns and observations.

An effective care plan is useful in helping Jean quit smoking. First, a quit plan should be developed. Formulating a plan will help her stay confident, focused, and motivated to stop smoking. For instance, she can adopt a nicotine replacement therapy. Another method that is applicable to Jean is to stay busy. Notably, keeping busy helps greatly in distracting someone from cravings and keeping off the mind from smoking (Preshaw et al, 2012, 23). Some of the activities that are relevant to Jean include exercising, chewing gum, having a walk and taking a lot of water. Other helpful things might be watching movies, having dinners in smoke-free restaurants or spending time with family and friends. It will be easier for Jean’s husband to quit smoking also if they undertake the activities together (Johnson et al, 2013, 3313). Their partnership in those activities will also enhance positive support to each other therefore reducing the intensity of Jean’s diabetes.

Steering clear smoking triggers is a significant care plan for Jean. Avoiding triggers such as places, people, situations, and things that may cause her to smoke is fundamental. Spending time with non-smokers, throwing away ashtrays, eating healthily, having enough rest and avoiding caffeine will help largely in helping Jean. Advising Jean to be positive is effective in aiding her to stop smoking completely (Rosenstock et al, 2014, 1822). Typically, quitting smoking is problematic, however, it happens stepwise. Therefore, Jean should be rewarded frequently if she avoids smoking to encourage her to totally stop the behavior hence aid her manage living with diabetes.


The care program should entail how Jean will lose weight. Consequently, it is helpful in boosting her health, reducing depression or stigma. Jean ought to steer clear fruit juice and sugary drinks. They make a person to gain weight swiftly. She should consume soluble fiber or subsequently use fiber supplements which aid in lowering fats in the body. Jean should consider drinking tea frequently as it increases body metabolism (Floegel et al, 2013, 642). Taking a breakfast that is rich in protein reduces calorie intake and cravings during the entire day.

Jean should establish a routine of daily exercise to avoid diabetic symptoms such as extreme fatigue, numbness, and blurry vision. This is achievable through walking, jogging or running. Constant exercise aids in reducing calories. Workouts also get the heart rate up hence burning more calories. Approximately over 100 minutes of weekly exercise will be vital in reducing Jean’s weight. Jean should be advised to stop being worried about her weight. Stress contributes to building up of abdominal fat which is results in high blood glucose level (Preshaw et al, 2012, 21). When a person is stressed up, hormones like cortisol reduce metabolism, stimulate appetite and increase fat storage in the abdomen which may result in either the body not making enough insulin or not using insulin properly.

In conclusion, people should often have check-ups for early assessment and detection of diabetes. Subsequently, this will aid in the development of care plans, self-management programs, monitoring and evaluation of improvement. Involving patients in developing care plans is effective because patients feel confident concerning the care that will be provided. Consulting about the most appropriate way to deliver medication and care for diabetic patients is fundamental, for instance, it will make Jean stop feeling the inadequacy of privacy. It is important to note that diabetic patients are adversely affected by depression and stigma which result in health deterioration, for instance, Jean. It is, therefore, important for such patients to avoid these to live a longer, healthy, and better life.

References

Breton, M., Farret, A., Bruttomesso, D., Anderson, S., Magni, L., Patek, S., Dalla Man, C., Place, J., Demartini, S., Del Favero, S. and Toffanin, C., 2012. Fully integrated artificial pancreas in type 1 diabetes: modular closed-loop glucose control maintains near normoglycemia. Diabetes, 61(9), pp.2230-2237.

Floegel, A., Stefan, N., Yu, Z., M?hlenbruch, K., Drogan, D., Joost, H.G., Fritsche, A., H?ring, H.U., de Angelis, M.H., Peters, A. and Roden, M., 2013. Identification of serum metabolites associated with risk of type 2 diabetes using a targeted metabolomic approach. Diabetes, 62(2), pp.639-648.

Johnson, R.J., Nakagawa, T., Sanchez-Lozada, L.G., Shafiu, M., Sundaram, S., Le, M., Ishimoto, T., Sautin, Y.Y. and Lanaspa, M.A., 2013. Sugar, uric acid, and the etiology of diabetes and obesity. Diabetes, 62(10), pp.3307-3315.

Pociot, F., Akolkar, B., Concannon, P., Erlich, H.A., Julier, C., Morahan, G., Nierras, C.R., Todd, J.A., Rich, S.S. and Nerup, J., 2010. Genetics of type 1 diabetes: what's next?. Diabetes, 59(7), pp.1561-1571.

Preshaw, P.M., Alba, A.L., Herrera, D., Jepsen, S., Konstantinidis, A., Makrilakis, K. and Taylor, R., 2012. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship. Diabetologia, 55(1), pp.21-31.

Rosenstock, J., Jelaska, A., Frappin, G., Salsali, A., Kim, G., Woerle, H.J. and Broedl, U.C., 2014. Improved glucose control with weight loss, lower insulin doses, and no increased hypoglycemia with empagliflozin added to titrated multiple daily injections of insulin in obese inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care, 37(7), pp.1815-1823.

Strawbridge, R.J., Dupuis, J., Prokopenko, I., Barker, A., Ahlqvist, E., Rybin, D., Petrie, J.R., Travers, M.E., Bouatia-Naji, N., Dimas, A.S. and Nica, A., 2011. Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 60(10), pp.2624-2634.

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